Tooth loss and lack of regular oral hygiene are associated with higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Room 320, 6120 Executive Boulevard, MSC 7232, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 12/2008; 17(11):3062-8. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0558
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We tested the association between tooth loss and oral hygiene and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in people living in a high-risk area of Iran. We used a case-control study of pathologically confirmed ESCC cases (n = 283) and controls (n = 560) matched on sex, age, and neighborhood. Subjects with ESCC had significantly more decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) with a median (interquartile range) of 31 (23-32) compared with controls 28 (16-32; P = 0.0045). Subjects with ESCC were significantly more likely than controls to fail to practice regular oral hygiene (78% versus 58%). In multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, having 32 DMFT compared with < or = 15 conferred an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.10 (1.19-3.70). Compared with daily tooth brushing, practicing no regular oral hygiene conferred an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.37 (1.42-3.97). Restricting the analysis to subjects that had never smoked tobacco did not materially alter these results. We found significant associations between two markers of poor oral hygiene, a larger number of DMFT and lack of daily tooth brushing, and risk of ESCC in a population at high risk for ESCC where many cases occur in never smokers. Our results are consistent with several previous analyses in other high-risk populations.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is usually detected in advanced stages resulting in a very poor prognosis. Early diagnosis needs identification of clinically relevant precancerous lesions which could become the target of screening and early treatment. Our aim was to check whether esophagitis could serve as a relevant histological precursor of ESCC in Northern Iran. METHODS During 2001-2005, all adult patients who were referred to Atrak clinic for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy were enrolled. Atrak clinic is a major center for upper gastrointestinal cancer research in eastern Golestan. All subjects had been complaining of upper GI symptoms and were under further investigation to rule out cancer. Biopsies from the endoscopically normal mid-esophagus and also just above the esophago-gastric junction were obtained in all subjects whose esophagus appeared normal during endoscopy and from endoscopically normal appearing mucosa at the proximal vicinity of any detected mass. Microscopic examinations for the verification of the presence or absence of esophagitis was performed by independant histological examination of the samples by two pathologists. All the discrepant diagnoses were resolved in joint diagnostic sessions. RESULTS During the study period 836 patients were enrolled including 419 non cancer patients (endoscopy clinic controls), 387 cancer patients, and 30 subjects with clinical diagnosis of malignancy referred for histological reconfirmation of diagnosis by repeated biopsy. Mild or marked mid-esophagitis was diagnosed in 39 (9.3%), 47 (12.5%) and 12 (40%) of endoscopy clinic controls, cancer patients and those who were suspicious for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. CONCLUSION Our observation does not show evidence for esophagitis to be a predisposing factor for ESCC in Gonbad region In North Eastern Iran.
    Middle East journal of digestive diseases. 03/2011; 3(1):28-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. Esophageal cancer (EC) is also a common cause of death due to cancer among males. Systemic inflammatory processes have been shown to increase the risk of cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between PD and EC.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109444. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal disease with 5-year survival rates of <5% in Northern Iran. Oesophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the precursor histologic lesion of ESCC. This pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of non-endoscopic cytological examination of the oesophagus and to provide initial data on the accuracy of cytological atypia for identifying patients with ESD in this very-high-risk area.Methods:Randomly selected asymptomatic participants of the Golestan Cohort Study were recruited. A cytological specimen was taken using a capsule sponge device and evaluated for atypical cells. Sections of the cytological specimen were also stained for p53 protein. Patient acceptability was assessed using a visual analogue scale. The cytological diagnosis was compared with a chromoendoscopic examination using Lugol's solution.Results:Three hundred and forty-four subjects (43% male, mean (s.d.) age 55.6 (7.9) years) were referred to the study clinic. Three hundred and twelve met eligibility criteria and consented, of which 301 subjects (96.5%) completed both cytological and endoscopic examinations. There were no complications. Most of the participants (279; 92.7%) were satisfied with the examination. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination for identifying subjects with high-grade ESD were 100 and 97%, respectively. We found an accuracy of 100% (95% CI=99-100%) for a combination of cytological examination and p53 staining to detect high-grade ESD.Conclusions:The capsule sponge methodology seems to be a feasible, safe, and acceptable method for diagnosing precancerous lesions of the oesophagus in this population, with promising initial accuracy data for the detection of high-grade ESD.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 September 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.506
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2014; · 4.82 Impact Factor


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May 28, 2014