Despite decreases in overall cancer death rates across all racial and ethnic groups since the early 1990s, racial disparities in cancer mortality persist. We examined temporal trends in Black-White disparities in cancer mortality from all sites combined, smoking-related cancers (lung and a group including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, and kidney), and sites affected, or potentially affected by screening and treatment (breast, prostate, colon/rectum). Death rates, rate differences, and rate ratios comparing Blacks to Whites from 1975 through 2004 were based on mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The Black-White disparity in overall cancer death rates narrowed from the early 1990s through 2004, especially in men. This reduction was driven predominantly by more rapid decreases in mortality from tobacco-related cancers in Black men than White men. In contrast, racial disparities in mortality from cancers potentially affected by screening and treatment increased over most of the interval since 1975. Coordinated efforts to improve early detection and treatment for all segments of the population are essential to eliminate racial disparities in cancer mortality.
"They identified more pronounced declines among blacks in mortality from homicide, HIV, unintentional injuries, and heart disease (for women only) as the major contributors to the declining gap in life expectancy (see also Orsi et al. 2010). DeLancey et al. (2008) also identified more rapid decreases in smoking-related cancers among black males since 1990 as contributing to the decreasing overall gap. A follow-up study by Harper et al. (2012) documented a continued decline in the black-white life expectancy disparity (2003–2008) that was largely driven by more substantial declines in heart disease and HIV mortality for blacks, and increases in mortality for white males resulting from unintentional injuries. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Black-white differences in U.S. adult mortality have narrowed over the past five decades, but whether this narrowing unfolded on a period or cohort basis is unclear. The distinction has important implications for understanding the socioeconomic, public health, lifestyle, and medical mechanisms responsible for this narrowing. We use data from 1959 to 2009 and age-period-cohort (APC) models to examine period- and cohort-based changes in adult mortality for U.S. blacks and whites. We do so for all-cause mortality among persons aged 15-74 as well as for several underlying causes of death more pertinent for specific age groups. We find clear patterns of cohort-based reductions in mortality for both black men and women and white men and women. Recent cohort-based reductions in heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, female breast cancer, and other cancer mortality have been substantial and, save for breast cancer, have been especially pronounced for blacks. Period-based changes have also occurred and are especially pronounced for some causes of death. Period-based reductions in blacks' and whites' heart disease and stroke mortality are particularly impressive, as are recent period-based reductions in young men's and women's mortality from infectious diseases and homicide. These recent period changes are more pronounced among blacks. The substantial cohort-based trends in chronic disease mortality and recent period-based reductions for some causes of death suggest a continuing slow closure of the black-white mortality gap. However, we also uncover troubling signs of recent cohort-based increases in heart disease mortality for both blacks and whites.
"Worldwide epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ethnic origin is an important determinant of PCa risk, incidence and disease progression (DeLancey et al. 2008, Jemal et al. 2010). It has been reported that African American men are more likely to develop PCa at an earlier age, which translates to a 60% greater risk of developing PCa, twice the risk of metastatic disease and greater than twice the PCa associated mortality of Caucasian Americans (DeLancey et al. 2008, Wallner et al. 2009). Many factors, including dietary differences, socio-economic environment, lifestyle and access to adequate medical care have been implicated in the aggressiveness of PCa in African Americans (Sanderson et al. 2004, Williams and Powell 2009); however, these variables do not explain the incidence, aggressiveness and mortality associated with PCa among African Americans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although concerted efforts have been directed toward eradicating health disparities in the United States, the disease and mortality rates for African American men still are among the highest in the world. We focus here on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the signaling pathways of androgen receptors and growth factors that promote the progression of prostate cancer to more aggressive disease. We explore also how differential expression of miRNAs contributes to aggressive prostate cancer including that of African Americans.
"In this population, health outcomes such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (e.g. coronary heart disease, strokes) and certain cancers are of paramount importance because they are considered principal sources of health disparities [15-19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the number of pedometer assessment occasions required to establish habitual physical activity in African American adults.
African American adults (mean age 59.9 ± 0.60 years; 59 % female) enrolled in the Diet and Physical Activity Substudy of the Jackson Heart Study wore Yamax pedometers during 3-day monitoring periods, assessed on two to three distinct occasions, each separated by approximately one month. The stability of pedometer measured PA was described as differences in mean steps/day across time, as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) category, and as percent of participants changing steps/day quartiles across time.
Valid data were obtained for 270 participants on either two or three different assessment occasions. Mean steps/day were not significantly different across assessment occasions (p values > 0.456). The overall ICCs for steps/day assessed on either two or three occasions were 0.57 and 0.76, respectively. In addition, 85 % (two assessment occasions) and 76 % (three assessment occasions) of all participants remained in the same steps/day quartile or changed one quartile over time.
The current study shows that an overall mean steps/day estimate based on a 3-day monitoring period did not differ significantly over 4 - 6 months. The findings were robust to differences in sex, age, and BMI categories. A single 3-day monitoring period is sufficient to capture habitual physical activity in African American adults.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 04/2012; 9:44. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-44 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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