Despite decreases in overall cancer death rates across all racial and ethnic groups since the early 1990s, racial disparities in cancer mortality persist. We examined temporal trends in Black-White disparities in cancer mortality from all sites combined, smoking-related cancers (lung and a group including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, and kidney), and sites affected, or potentially affected by screening and treatment (breast, prostate, colon/rectum). Death rates, rate differences, and rate ratios comparing Blacks to Whites from 1975 through 2004 were based on mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The Black-White disparity in overall cancer death rates narrowed from the early 1990s through 2004, especially in men. This reduction was driven predominantly by more rapid decreases in mortality from tobacco-related cancers in Black men than White men. In contrast, racial disparities in mortality from cancers potentially affected by screening and treatment increased over most of the interval since 1975. Coordinated efforts to improve early detection and treatment for all segments of the population are essential to eliminate racial disparities in cancer mortality.
"Worldwide epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ethnic origin is an important determinant of PCa risk, incidence and disease progression (DeLancey et al. 2008, Jemal et al. 2010). It has been reported that African American men are more likely to develop PCa at an earlier age, which translates to a 60% greater risk of developing PCa, twice the risk of metastatic disease and greater than twice the PCa associated mortality of Caucasian Americans (DeLancey et al. 2008, Wallner et al. 2009). Many factors, including dietary differences, socio-economic environment, lifestyle and access to adequate medical care have been implicated in the aggressiveness of PCa in African Americans (Sanderson et al. 2004, Williams and Powell 2009); however, these variables do not explain the incidence, aggressiveness and mortality associated with PCa among African Americans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although concerted efforts have been directed toward eradicating health disparities in the United States, the disease and mortality rates for African American men still are among the highest in the world. We focus here on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the signaling pathways of androgen receptors and growth factors that promote the progression of prostate cancer to more aggressive disease. We explore also how differential expression of miRNAs contributes to aggressive prostate cancer including that of African Americans.
"In this population, health outcomes such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (e.g. coronary heart disease, strokes) and certain cancers are of paramount importance because they are considered principal sources of health disparities [15-19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the number of pedometer assessment occasions required to establish habitual physical activity in African American adults.
African American adults (mean age 59.9 ± 0.60 years; 59 % female) enrolled in the Diet and Physical Activity Substudy of the Jackson Heart Study wore Yamax pedometers during 3-day monitoring periods, assessed on two to three distinct occasions, each separated by approximately one month. The stability of pedometer measured PA was described as differences in mean steps/day across time, as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) category, and as percent of participants changing steps/day quartiles across time.
Valid data were obtained for 270 participants on either two or three different assessment occasions. Mean steps/day were not significantly different across assessment occasions (p values > 0.456). The overall ICCs for steps/day assessed on either two or three occasions were 0.57 and 0.76, respectively. In addition, 85 % (two assessment occasions) and 76 % (three assessment occasions) of all participants remained in the same steps/day quartile or changed one quartile over time.
The current study shows that an overall mean steps/day estimate based on a 3-day monitoring period did not differ significantly over 4 - 6 months. The findings were robust to differences in sex, age, and BMI categories. A single 3-day monitoring period is sufficient to capture habitual physical activity in African American adults.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 04/2012; 9:44. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-44 · 4.11 Impact Factor
"As such, survival after a cancer diagnosis still remains poorer among Black than White Americans . Prostate cancer mortality has been approximately two times higher among Black than White Americans in recent decades , and current global comparisons confirm worse mortality outcomes in African-American men . Vital statistics from the UK indicate that prostate cancer mortality rates among men born in West Africa and the West Indies are two to three times higher than overall rates in the male population . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0-170.2) per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0-250.5) and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5-158.6) per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.
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