Article

New Generation of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines for Universal Immunization after Eradication of Poliomyelitis

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.42). 01/2009; 47(12):1587-92. DOI: 10.1086/593310
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Twenty years of global polio eradication efforts may soon eliminate the transmission of wild-type poliovirus. However, new information that has been learned about poliovirus, as well as the political realities of a modern world, demand that universal immunity against poliomyelitis be maintained, even after wild-type poliovirus is eradicated. Although 2 excellent vaccines have proven to be highly effective in the past, neither the live-attenuated vaccine nor the currently used inactivated vaccine are optimal for use in the posteradication era. Therefore, concerted efforts are urgently needed to develop a new generation of vaccine that is risk-free and affordable and can be produced on a global scale. Here, we discuss the desired properties of a vaccine and methods to create a new polio vaccine.

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    • "The last decade saw an increase in the use of IPV as compared to OPV which was due to the excellent safety and efficacy record of IPV as well as cost-effective production process for its production (Chumakov and Ehrenfeld, 2008). Even though IPV is less effective in stimulating enteric immunity than live vaccine. "
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    Molecular Immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.05.013 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "The formalin-inactivated PV vaccine (IPV), developed by Salk et al. (1954), was the first vaccine to be licensed followed by the oral PV vaccine (OPV) developed by Sabin (1957). The last decade saw an increase in the use of IPV as compared to OPV which was due to the excellent safety and efficacy record of IPV as well as cost-effective production process for its production (Chumakov and Ehrenfeld, 2008). The IPV is formulated as a trivalent product containing a representative virus isolate of each serotype (Mahoney, MEF-1 and Saukett). "
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    ABSTRACT: The inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) contains poliovirus (PVs) samples that belong to serotypes 1, 2 and 3. All three serotypes contain the D-antigen, which induces protective antibodies. The antigenic structure of PVs consists of at least four different antigenic sites and the D-antigen content represents the combined activity of multiple epitopes (Ferguson et al., 1993; Minor, 1990; Minor et al., 1986). The potency of IPV vaccines is determined by measuring the D-antigen content. Several ELISA methods have been developed using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) in order to quantify the D-antigen content. Characterization of the epitopes recognized by the different Mabs is crucial to map the entire virus surface and ensure the presence of epitopes able to induce neutralizing antibodies. In a new approach, combining cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis with X-ray crystallography data available along with identification of exposed amino acids we have mapped in 3D the epitope sites recognized by five specific Fabs and one Mab and characterized precisely the antigenic sites for these Mabs. We propose this method to be used to map the entire “epitopic” surface of virus.
    Molecular Immunology 01/2014; 63(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.07.014 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "These include inactivated wholevirus [12] [13], viral protein VP1 subunit [13] [14], VP1 DNA [13] [15], virus-like particle (VLP) [16], as well as transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein [17]. Results from these studies and historical experience with PV vaccines [18] [19] indicate that an inactivated whole-virus vaccine is feasible. Several inactivated EV71 vaccines are under development and could be readily licensed [20]. "
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