Preferences of transmembrane helices for cooperative amplification of Gαs and Gαq signaling of the thyrotropin receptor
ABSTRACT The majority of constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor display a partially activated receptor. Thus, full receptor activation requires a multiplex activation process. To define impacts of different transmembrane helices (TMHs) on cooperative signal transduction, we combined single CAMs in particular TMHs to double mutations and measured second messenger accumulation of the G(alpha)s and the G(alpha)q pathway. We observed a synergistic increase for basal activity of the G(alpha)s pathway, for all characterized double mutants except for two combinations. Each double mutation, containing CAMs in TMH2, 6 and 7 showed the highest constitutive activities, suggesting that these helices contribute most to G(alpha)s-mediated signaling. No single CAM revealed constitutive activity for the G(alpha)q pathway. The double mutations with CAMs from TMH1, 2, 3 and 6 also exhibited increase for basal G(alpha)q signaling. Our results suggest that TMH2, 6, 7 show selective preferences towards G(alpha)s signaling, and TMH1, 2, 3, 6 for G(alpha)q signaling.
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ABSTRACT: In this study we wanted to gain insights into selectivity mechanisms between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and different subtypes of G-proteins. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) binds G-proteins promiscuously and activates both Gs (cAMP) and Gq (IP). Our goal was to dissect selectivity patterns for both pathways in the intracellular region of this receptor. We were particularly interested in the participation of poorly investigated receptor parts. We systematically investigated the amino acids of intracellular loop (ICL) 1 and helix 8 using site-directed mutagenesis alongside characterization of cAMP and IP accumulation. This approach was guided by a homology model of activated TSHR in complex with heterotrimeric Gq, using the X-ray structure of opsin with a bound G-protein peptide as a structural template. We provide evidence that ICL1 is significantly involved in G-protein activation and our model suggests potential interactions with subunits Gα as well as Gβγ. Several amino acid substitutions impaired both IP and cAMP accumulation. Moreover, we found a few residues in ICL1 (L440, T441, H443) and helix 8 (R687) that are sensitive for Gq but not for Gs activation. Conversely, not even one residue was found that selectively affects cAMP accumulation only. Together with our previous mutagenesis data on ICL2 and ICL3 we provide here the first systematically completed map of potential interfaces between TSHR and heterotrimeric G-protein. The TSHR/Gq-heterotrimer complex is characterized by more selective interactions than the TSHR/Gs complex. In fact the receptor interface for binding Gs is a subset of that for Gq and we postulate that this may be true for other GPCRs coupling these G-proteins. Our findings support that G-protein coupling and preference is dominated by specific structural features at the intracellular region of the activated GPCR but is completed by additional complementary recognition patterns between receptor and G-protein subtypes.PLoS ONE 03/2010; 5(3):e9745. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0009745 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: New in-vivo mutations in G-protein coupled receptors open opportunities for insights into the mechanism of receptor activation. Here we describe the molecular mechanism of constitutive thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) activation in an Austrian family with three generations of familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Patients: The index patient was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism during her first pregnancy. Her first two children were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism at the age of 11 and 10, respectively. TSH suppression was also observed in the third child at the age of 8, who has normal fT4 levels until now. TSH suppression in infancy was observed in the fourth child. The mother of the index patient was diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter at the age of 36. Methods: DNA was extracted from blood samples from the index patient, her mother and her four children. Screening for TSHR mutations was performed by high resolution melting assays and subsequent sequencing. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism of TSHR activation was carried out by generation and structural analysis of a TSHR transmembrane homology models and verification of model predictions by functional characterization of receptor mutations. Results and conclusions: A newly discovered TSHR mutation L665F in transmembrane helix (TM) 7 of the receptor was detected in six members of this family. Functional characterization of L665F revealed constitutive activation for the Gs pathway and thus represents the molecular cause for hyperthyroidism in this family. The constitutive activation is possibly linked to a steric clash introduced by the L665F mutation between TMs 1, 2 and 7.Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 06/2014; 99(10):jc20141436. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-1436 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prolonged TSH suppression was reported in a patient with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. These observations were made during L-thyroxine treatment and it was not possible to investigate a possible increase in serum TSH concentrations to levels observed in untreated hypothyroidism. We describe nonautoimmune familial hyperthyroidism identified in an Israeli woman, which is remarkable for the prolonged inappropriate TSH suppression after thyroid ablation. After 2 radioiodine treatments for several years, her TSH was always lower than 0.03 mU/l with 1.6 μg/kg/day (100 μg) thyroxine. 14 years after the radioiodine treatments, she discontinued thyroxine for 3.5 months and developed myxoedema with fT4 <6.0 and fT3 1.3 pmol/l and TSH of only 4.4 mU/l, which rose to only 8.6 after TRH. Genomic analysis showed a germline substitution M626I in the TSHR gene. Both exons of the thyroid-releasing hormone receptor revealed no mutations in this gene. Functional in vitro characterization of M626I showed a cell surface expression of 70% compared with the wt (100%), a significant increase of basal activity (5-fold over wt basal), which was confirmed by linear regression analysis (LRA) (slope: M626I=7, wt=1). No TRH-receptor mutation was detected. Therefore, this is the first patient with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism with unequivocal evidence for inappropriately prolonged TSH suppression documented by a clearly insufficient TSH increase during clinical hypothyroidism. The in vitro characterization of the TSH-receptor mutation did not show any explanations for the prolonged TSH suppression. Therefore, other possible candidate genes remain to be investigated for potential explanations for this prolonged TSH suppression.Hormone and Metabolic Research 06/2011; 43(7):500-4. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1277184 · 2.04 Impact Factor