Phorbol ester-induced PKCepsilon down-modulation sensitizes AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cell differentiation.
ABSTRACT Despite the relevant therapeutic progresses made in these last 2 decades, the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor. Phorbol esters are used at very low concentrations as differentiating agents in the therapy of myeloid leukemias. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), in turn, is a death ligand that spares normal cells and is therefore currently under clinical trials for cancer therapy. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that TRAIL is also involved in nonapoptotic functions, like cell differentiation. PKCepsilon is differentially modulated along normal hematopoiesis, and its levels modulate the response of hematopoietic precursors to TRAIL. Here, we investigated the effects of the combination of phorbol esters (phorbol ester 4-beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate [PDBu]) and TRAIL in the survival/differentiation of AML cells. We demonstrate here that PDBu sensitizes primary AML cells to both the apoptogenic and the differentiative effects of TRAIL via PKCepsilon down-modulation, without affecting TRAIL receptor surface expression. We believe that the use of TRAIL in combination with phorbol esters (or possibly more specific PKCepsilon down-modulators) might represent a significative improvement of our therapeutic arsenal against AML.
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ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signal transducing enzymes, unique to eukaryotes, that are involved in many facets of cellular regulation. Initial research concentrated on defining the components and organization of MAPK signalling cascades, but recent studies have begun to shed light on the physiological functions of these cascades in the control of gene expression, cell proliferation and programmed cell death.Nature 04/2001; 410(6824):37-40. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an important member of the TNF superfamily with great potential in cancer therapy. Luteolin is a dietary flavonoid commonly found in some medicinal plants. Here we found that pretreatment with a noncytotoxic concentration of luteolin significantly sensitized TRAIL-induced apoptosis in both TRAIL-sensitive (HeLa) and TRAIL-resistant cancer cells (CNE1, HT29, and HepG2). Such sensitization is achieved through enhanced caspase-8 activation and caspase-3 maturation. Further, the protein level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was markedly reduced in cells treated with luteolin and TRAIL, and ectopic expression of XIAP protected against cell death induced by luteolin and TRAIL, showing that luteolin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of XIAP. In search of the molecular mechanism responsible for XIAP down-regulation, we found that luteolin and TRAIL promoted XIAP ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Next, we showed that protein kinase C (PKC) activation prevented cell death induced by luteolin and TRAIL via suppression of XIAP down-regulation. Moreover, luteolin inhibited PKC activity, and bisindolylmaleimide I, a general PKC inhibitor, simulated luteolin in sensitizing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results present a novel anticancer effect of luteolin and support its potential application in cancer therapy in combination with TRAIL. In addition, our data reveal a new function of PKC in cell death: PKC activation stabilizes XIAP and thus suppresses TRAIL-induced apoptosis.Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(17):7815-23. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pattern of expression of several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (alpha, betaI, delta, epsilon, eta, and zeta) during the course of hematopoietic development was investigated using primary human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells and stable cell lines subcloned from the growth factor-dependent 32D murine hematopoietic cell line. Each 32D cell clone shows the phenotype and growth factor dependence characteristics of the corresponding hematopoietic lineage. Clear-cut differences were noticed between erythroid and nonerythroid lineages. (1) The functional inhibition of PKC-epsilon in primary human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells resulted in a twofold increase in the number of erythroid colonies. (2) Erythroid 32D Epo1 cells showed a lower level of bulk PKC catalytic activity, lacked the expression of epsilon and eta PKC isoforms, and showed a weak or absent upregulation of the remaining isoforms, except betaI, upon readdition of Epo to growth factor-starved cells. (3) 32D, 32D GM1, and 32D G1 cell lines with mast cell, granulo-macrophagic, and granulocytic phenotype, respectively, expressed all the PKC isoforms investigated, but showed distinct responses to growth factor readdition. (4) 32D Epo 1.1, a clone selected for interleukin-3 (IL-3) responsiveness from 32D Epo1, expressed the epsilon isoform only when cultured with IL-3. On the other hand, when cultured in Epo, 32D Epo1.1 cells lacked the expression of both epsilon and eta PKC isoforms, similarly to 32D Epo1. (5) All 32D cell lines expressed the mRNA for PKC-epsilon, indicating that the downmodulation of the epsilon isoform occurred at a posttranscriptional level. In conclusion, the PKC isoform expression during hematopoiesis appears to be lineage-specific and, at least partially, related to the growth factor response.Blood 03/1999; 93(4):1178-88. · 9.06 Impact Factor