During 1950-87, deaths outnumbered births in 1 or more years in 993 U.S. counties; 95 percent were nonmetro counties, mostly in Florida, central United States, and Appalachia. Because of such natural decrease of population combined with increased outmigration of young adults, these counties may undergo financial stress and have difficulty maintaining schools and other services. (Author/SV)
"Evidence from several recent studies supports this expectation. For example, researchers have found that family size and birth rate in nonmetro counties are no longer significantly different from those found in metro counties (Beale 1978; Zuiches and Brown 1978; Conger and Elder 1994; Coward and Smith 1982; Beale and Fuguitt 1990; Fuguitt, Beale, and Reibel 1991; Johnson and Beale 1992). In further support of this economic uniqueness hypothesis, Albrecht and Albrecht (1996) maintain that many of the historical differences were really farm vs. nonfarm rather than nonmetro vs. metro; and as the farm population has declined, metro/nonmetro differences have diminished. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Two of the most significant changes affecting U.S. society during the 20th century were transformations in family structure and the transition from a nonmetropolitan/farm society to a largely metropolitan society. In this study, classic sociological theory, developed to understand differences between metro and nonmetro society, was employed. Despite contentions that the residence variable is no longer viable, we hypothesized that nonmetro interaction patterns would result in nonmetro residents making more traditional and conservative choices relative to family formation. Analysis of data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth provided support for these contentions. Nonmetropolitan women were significantly more likely than metropolitan women to be married at the time of conception. Further, when comparing women who were not married at conception, nonmetro women were significantly more likely than metro women to get married prior to the birth of the child, and were significantly more likely to have the pregnancy result in a live birth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) residential segregation in 1990 and change in the preceding decade have received insufficient attention. A set of empirical hypotheses are derived and assessed using nonmetro and metropolitan (metro) counties in Texas. Places in nonmetro counties were more segregated than places in metro counties in 1990 as in 1980. Substantial declines in segregation occurred in both nonmetro and metro places but were largest in growing places in nonmetro counties. An analysis controlling for other determinants of segregation supports the premise that population change was a major determinant of 1980–1990 change in segregation. Implications for nonmetro areas in the 1990s are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Size-of-place differences in the distribution of psychological distress are examined. Residents in communities of less than 2,500 population are predicted to have higher levels of distress than persons living in farm, rural nonfarm, and larger places. A research instrument was designed to measure economic stress, personal resources, and psychological distress in a survey of adult householders in a midwestern state. Results support the interpretation that long-term demographic and social trends had a negative impact upon the psychological well-being of residents in rural communities. Residents of these rural communities have higher levels of distress than persons living on farms or in towns of up to 9,999 population. Levels of psychological distress are not significantly different between persons living in rural communities and those in small cities or urban centers.
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