A common haplotype of DRD3 affected by recent positive selection is associated with protection from schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT The number and frequency of susceptibility alleles at loci associated to most psychiatric disorders is largely unknown, in spite of its relevance for the design of studies aiming to find these alleles. Both, common polymorphisms and rare mutations may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to complex psychiatric disorders, being the relative relevance of each type of variation currently under debate. Here, we confirmed the existence of a common protective haplotype against schizophrenia at the dopamine D(3) receptor (DRD3) gene, by replication and pooled analysis with previous data (Mantel-Haenszel chi(2) P value = 0.00227; OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, based on 794 cases and 1,078 controls from three independent populations of European origin). This protective haplotype is at very low frequency in Sub-Saharan Africans (median 0.06) and at intermediate frequencies in other populations (median 0.25). We also revealed, by examining the patterns of linkage disequilibrium around this gene, that the protective haplotype has reached high frequency in non-African populations due to selection acting, most probably, on a linked functional polymorphism, the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism Ser9Gly (rs6280), also at DRD3. Thus, this finding shows that the natural selection may play a role in the existence of common alleles conferring different susceptibility to schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Drug dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviours persist despite serious negative consequences. Addictive substances, such as opioids, ethanol, psychostimulants and nicotine, induce pleasant states or relieve distress, effects that contribute to their recreational use. Dopamine is critically involved in drug addiction processes. However, the role of the various dopaminergic receptor subtypes has been difficult to delineate. Here, we will review the information collected implicating the receptors of the D1 family (DRD1 and DRD5) and of the D2 family (DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4) in drug addiction. We will summarize the distribution of these receptors in the brain, the preclinical experiments carried out with pharmacological and transgenic approaches and the genetic studies carried out linking genetic variants of these receptors to drug addiction phenotypes. A meta-analysis of the studies carried out evaluating DRD2 and alcohol dependence is also provided, which indicates a significant association. Overall, this review indicates that different aspects of the addiction phenotype are critically influenced by dopaminergic receptors and that variants of those genes seem to influence some addiction phenotypes in humans.Behavioural pharmacology 03/2009; 20(1):1-17. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dopamine D3 receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). A glycine-to-serine polymorphism at codon 9 of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3), rs6280, has been widely studied for its association with SZ, but with conflicting results. Altered levels of DRD3 mRNA have also been reported in SZ compared with normal controls. Moreover, it has been suggested that DRD3 is subject to recent positive selection in European populations. To explore the potential role of DRD3 in SZ from these various aspects, we conducted a threefold study. First, we tested the genetic association of rs6280 with SZ in 685 SZ patients and 768 normal controls. Second, we examined DRD3 mRNA levels in peripheral leukocytes in a subset of 37 patients and 37 controls. Finally, we investigated the possible recent positive selection on DRD3 in an East Asian population. Consequently, we observed that the genotypic distribution of rs6280 was nominally associated with SZ (P = 0.045), with the ancestral CC genotype being significantly over-represented in SZ patients. DRD3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 5.91E-5). The derived C-allele of rs6280 might have been subject to recent positive selection (P < 0.001) in the East Asian population. Taken together, our results suggest that DRD3, a gene possibly under natural selection, might be involved in vulnerability to SZ in the Han Chinese population. These findings may further add to the body of data implicating DRD3 as a schizophrenia risk gene.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 07/2011; 156B(5):613-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dopamine receptor gene DRD3 and in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism Ser9Gly has been extensively investigated and found to have potential association with a wide variety of conditions. These include essential tremor, unipolar and bipolar depression, as well as a loose association with schizophrenia. Evaluation of (1) these known associations with DRD3, (2) the recent finding of Costas and colleagues that a haplotype containing Ser-9 is associated with protection from schizophrenia, and (3) an extant trait model of personality, leads to the hypothesis that an allele DRD3/Ser codes for trait aggression by Mendelian recessive inheritance. The implications of this hypothesis are that (1) DRD3 is a pleiotropic gene having allelic polymorphism related to both behavior and disease, and (2) models of personality based on genetic traits hold promise. In the area of schizophrenia, the hypothesis implies that schizophrenic patients can be divided into two broad classes: those having genotype DRD3/Ser/Ser and those who lack this homozygosity. The hypothesis of the association of DRD3 with trait aggression could be readily evaluated by testing groups of healthy individuals by personality inventory focused on aggression and by biochemical assay of neurotransmitter levels.Medical Hypotheses 09/2011; 77(6):1108-10. · 1.18 Impact Factor