DNA sequencing of a cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia genome.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 12/2008; 456(7218):66-72. DOI: 10.1038/nature07485
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute myeloid leukaemia is a highly malignant haematopoietic tumour that affects about 13,000 adults in the United States each year. The treatment of this disease has changed little in the past two decades, because most of the genetic events that initiate the disease remain undiscovered. Whole-genome sequencing is now possible at a reasonable cost and timeframe to use this approach for the unbiased discovery of tumour-specific somatic mutations that alter the protein-coding genes. Here we present the results obtained from sequencing a typical acute myeloid leukaemia genome, and its matched normal counterpart obtained from the same patient's skin. We discovered ten genes with acquired mutations; two were previously described mutations that are thought to contribute to tumour progression, and eight were new mutations present in virtually all tumour cells at presentation and relapse, the function of which is not yet known. Our study establishes whole-genome sequencing as an unbiased method for discovering cancer-initiating mutations in previously unidentified genes that may respond to targeted therapies.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Like many other ancient genes, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has survived for hundreds of millions of years. In this report, we consider whether such prodigious longevity of an individual gene - as opposed to an entire genome or species - should be considered surprising in the face of eons of relentless DNA replication errors, mutagenesis, and other causes of sequence polymorphism. The conventions that modern human SNP patterns result either from purifying selection or random (neutral) drift were not well supported, since extant models account rather poorly for the known plasticity and function (or the established SNP distributions) found in a multitude of genes such as CFTR. Instead, our analysis can be taken as a polemic indicating that SNPs in CFTR and many other mammalian genes may have been generated-and continue to accrue-in a fundamentally more organized manner than would otherwise have been expected. The resulting viewpoint contradicts earlier claims of 'directional' or 'intelligent design-type' SNP formation, and has important implications regarding the pace of DNA adaptation, the genesis of conserved non-coding DNA, and the extent to which eukaryotic SNP formation should be viewed as adaptive.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109186. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the 10 years since the discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), this epigenetic eraser has emerged as an important target of interest in oncology. More specifically, research has demonstrated that it plays an essential role in the self-renewal of leukemic stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This review will cover clinical aspects of AML, the role of epigenetics in the disease, and discuss the research that led to the first irreversible inhibitors of LSD1 entering clinical trials for the treatment of AML in 2014. We also review recent achievements and progress in the development of potent and selective reversible inhibitors of LSD1. These compounds differ in their mode of action from tranylcypromine derivatives and could facilitate novel biochemical studies to probe the pathways mediated by LSD1. In this review, we will critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of published series of reversible LSD1 inhibitors. Overall, while the development of reversible inhibitors to date has been less fruitful than that of irreversible inhibitors, there is still the possibility for their use to facilitate further research into the roles and functions of LSD1 and to expand the therapeutic applications of LSD1 inhibitors in the clinic.
    Medicinal Research Reviews 11/2014; · 8.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The past decade has seen the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which have revolutionized the field of human molecular genetics. With NGS, significant portions of the human genome can now be assessed by direct sequence analysis, highlighting normal and pathological variants of our DNA. Recent advances have also allowed the sequencing of complete genomes, by a method referred to as whole genome sequencing (WGS). In this work, we review the use of WGS in medical genetics, with specific emphasis on the benefits and the disadvantages of this technique for detecting genomic alterations leading to Mendelian human diseases and to cancer.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 12/2014; · 5.86 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014