Health-related quality of life and hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease patients.
ABSTRACT The relationship between quality of life (QofL) and anemia has been the subject of recent debates; it has been suggested that the QofL changes associated with the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or ESRD patients should not be used in making decisions to treat anemia in CKD patients.
This study examines the relationship between Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQofL) questionnaire domains and hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in 1200 patients with stage 3, 4, and 5 CKD followed in seven centers. QofL measures were compared in a stepwise fashion for hemoglobin levels of <11, 11 to <12, 12 to <13, and > or =13. ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between QofL scores and Hgb level, age, CKD stage, and albumin level; a history of diabetes, congestive heart failure, or myocardial infarction; use of erythropoetic-stimulating agents (ESA); and the interaction of hemoglobin level and ESA.
The results demonstrate that with increasing Hgb levels there is a statistically significant increase in all four physical domains, the energy/vitality domain, and the physical composite score of the SF-36, and the general health score on the kidney disease component of the questionnaire. The most dramatic improvements in these various domains occurred between the <11 and the 11 to 12 group.
Higher Hgb levels are associated with improved QofL domains of the KDQofL questionnaire. These findings have implications for the care of CKD patients in terms of the initiation of and the Hgb target of ESA therapy.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are used to treat anaemia in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several agents are available including epoetin alfa or beta as well as agents with a longer duration of action, darbepoetin alfa and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta. To assess the benefits and harms of darbepoetin alfa to treat anaemia in adults and children with CKD (stages 3 to 5, 5D, and kidney transplant recipients). We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register (to 13 January 2014) through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Studies contained in the Specialised Register are identified through search strategies specifically designed for CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We included randomised controlled trials of any darbepoetin alfa treatment of at least three months duration in adults or children with CKD (any stage). Data were extracted by two independent investigators. Patient-centred outcomes (need for blood transfusion, iron therapy, progression of kidney disease, total and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events, cancer, hypertension, seizures, and health-related quality of life) and other outcomes (haemoglobin levels) were assessed using random effects meta-analysis. We calculated risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes, both with 95% confidence intervals. We identified 32 studies comprising 9414 participants; 21 studies in 8328 participants could be included in our meta-analyses. One study (4038 participants) compared darbepoetin alfa to placebo, 16 studies (2955 participants) compared darbepoetin alfa to epoetin alfa or beta, four studies (1198 participants) compared darbepoetin alfa to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, three studies (420 participants) compared more frequent with less frequent darbepoetin alfa administration and four studies (303 participants) compared intravenous with subcutaneous darbepoetin alfa administration.In a single large study, darbepoetin alfa reduced the need for blood transfusion and iron therapy compared with placebo in adults with CKD stage 3 to 5, but had little or no effect on survival, increased risks of hypertension, and had uncertain effects on quality of life. Data comparing darbepoetin alfa with epoetin alfa or beta or methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta were sparse and inconclusive. Comparisons of differing dosing schedules and routes of administration were compared in small numbers of participants and studies. Evidence for treatment effects of darbepoetin alfa were particularly limited for children with CKD, adults with CKD stage 5D, and recipients of a kidney transplant.Studies included in this review were generally at high or unclear risk of bias for all items (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, selective outcome reporting, intention to treat analysis and other sources of bias). One large study comparing darbepoetin alfa with placebo was at low risk of bias for most items assessed. Data suggest that darbepoetin alfa effectively reduces need for blood transfusions in adults with CKD stage 3 to 5, but has little or no effect on mortality or quality of life. The effects of darbepoetin alfa in adults with CKD stage 5D and kidney transplant recipients and children with CKD remain uncertain as do the relative benefits and harms of darbepoetin alfa compared with other ESAs (epoetin alfa or beta and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta).Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 03/2014; 3(3):CD009297. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009297.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are reflections of hormonal failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD). While the association of elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anemia has been studied among those with advanced CKD, less is known about this association in mild-to-moderate CKD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, the relationship between PTH and hemoglobin levels was investigated in 10,750 participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. RESULTS: In the unadjusted analysis, higher PTH levels were associated with lower hemoglobin levels. However, after multivariable adjustment for age, race, gender, smoking status, education, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, albuminuria, BMI, baseline eGFR, calcium, and phosphorus, the direction of association changed. As compared to the first PTH quintile, hemoglobin levels were 0.09 g/dl (95% CI: 0.01-0.18), 0.15 g/dl (95% CI: 0.07-0.24), 0.18 g/dl (95% CI: 0.09-0.26), and 0.13 g/dl (95% CI: 0.07-0.25) higher for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles, respectively. Similarly, each standard deviation increase in natural log transformed PTH was associated with a 0.06 g/dl (95% CI: 0.03-0.09, p = 0.0003) increase in hemoglobin. However, a significant effect modification was seen for diabetes (p = 0.0003). Each standard deviation increase in natural log transformed PTH was associated with a 0.10 g/dl (95% CI: 0.054-0.138, p < 0.0001) increase in hemoglobin, while no association was seen among those without diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: After multivariable adjustment, there was a small positive association between PTH and hemoglobin among diabetics but not among nondiabetics.01/2013; 3(2-2):120-127. DOI:10.1159/000351229
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In predialysis patients, the optimal treatment choices for controlling haemoglobin (Hb) are unknown, because targeting high Hb levels has negative effects-poorer survival-but possible positive effects as well-better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Moreover, these effects may be different in specific subgroups (e.g. young versus elderly). In the PREPARE-2 follow-up study, incident predialysis patients were included (2004-2011) when referred to 1 of the 25 participating Dutch outpatient clinics. HRQOL was assessed at 6-month intervals with the short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire [physical/mental summary measure and eight subscales (range 0-100)]. A linear mixed model was used to associate Hb [<11, ≥11 to <12 (reference), ≥12 to <13 and ≥13 g/dL] with HRQOL, stratified by prescription of anaemia medication (erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA)/iron) and age (young: <65 years and elderly: ≥65 years). Only elderly patients (n = 214) not prescribed ESA/iron and with a high Hb (≥13 versus ≥11 to <12 g/dL) had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) and/or clinically relevant (>3-5 points) higher physical [11.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 22.2] and mental (6.4, 95% CI -1.7, 14.6) summary score. High Hb was not associated with a higher HRQOL in elderly patients who were prescribed ESA/iron. However, only young patients (n = 157) prescribed ESA/iron and with a high Hb (≥13 versus ≥11 to <12 g/dL) had a higher physical (8.9, 95% CI 2.1, 15.8) and mental (6.2, 95% CI -0.4, 12.8) summary score. The association of Hb levels with HRQOL differs by age and use of ESA/iron medication on predialysis care. Therefore, medical care should aim for shared decision-making regarding the appropriate Hb target leading to more individualized care.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2014; DOI:10.1093/ndt/gft533 · 3.49 Impact Factor