Article

Assessing parent numbers from offspring genotypes: the importance of marker polymorphism.

Department of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria.
The Journal of heredity (Impact Factor: 2.05). 12/2008; 100(2):197-205. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esn095
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Methods to infer parent numbers from offspring genotypes either determine the minimum number of parents required to explain alleles and multilocus genotypes detected in the offspring or use models to incorporate information on population allele frequencies and allele segregation. Disparate results by different approaches suggest that one or perhaps all methods are subject to bias. Here, we investigate the performance of minimum parent number estimates, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses (programs COLONY and PARENTAGE) with respect to marker information content in simulated data sets without knowledge of parental genotypes. Offspring families of different sizes were assumed to share one parent and to be sired by 1 or 5 additional parents. All methods committed large errors in terms of underestimation (minimum value) and overestimation (COLONY), or both (PARENTAGE) of parent numbers, unless the data were highly informative, and their relative performances depended on full-sib group sizes and sire numbers. Increasing the number of markers with low gene diversity (H(e) < or = 0.68) yielded only slow improvement of the results, but all 3 methods performed well with 5-7 markers of H(e) = 0.84. We emphasize the importance of high marker polymorphism for inferring parent numbers and individual parent contributions, as well as for the detection of monogamous reproduction.

1 Bookmark
 · 
93 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (HE > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.
    The Journal of heredity 04/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ensuring appropriate levels of genetic diversity in captive populations is essential to avoid inbreeding and loss of rare alleles by genetic drift. Pedigree reconstruction and parentage analysis in the absence of parental genotypes can be a challenging task that relies in the assignment of sibship relationships among the offspring. Here, we used eight highly variable microsatellite markers and three different assignment methods to reconstruct the most likely genotypes of a parental group of wild Seriola dumerili fish based on the genotypes of six cohorts of their offspring, to assess their relative contributions to the offspring. We found that a combination of the four most variable microsatellites was enough to identify the number of parents and their contribution to the offspring, suggesting that the variability of the markers can be more critical than the number of markers. Estimated effective population sizes were lower than the number of breeders and variable among years. The results suggest unequal parental contribution that should be accounted for breeding programs in the future.
    Animal Genetics 03/2013; · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2-6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a "well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool" of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86508. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
39 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014