High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is one of the recently defined damage-associated molecular pattern molecules derived from necrotic cells and activated macrophages. We investigated clinical implications of serum HMGB1 elevation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Then, we evaluated the effect of HMGB1 blockade on post-MI left ventricular (LV) remodelling in a rat MI model.
Serum HMGB1 levels were examined in patients with ST-elevation MI (n = 35). A higher peak serum HMGB1 level was associated with pump failure, cardiac rupture, and in-hospital cardiac death. Then, an experimental MI model was induced in male Wistar rats. The mRNA and protein expression of HMGB1 were increased in the infarcted area compared with those values observed in sham-operated rats. We administered neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody (MI/anti-H) or control antibody (MI/C) to MI rats subcutaneously for 7 days. The mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta and the number of macrophages in the infarcted area were reduced on day 3 in MI/anti-H rats compared with MI/C rats. Interestingly, HMGB1 blockade resulted in thinning and expansion of the infarct scar and marked hypertrophy of the non-infarcted area on day 14.
Elevated serum HMGB1 levels were associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with MI. However, HMGB1 blockade in a rat MI model aggravated LV remodelling, possibly through impairment of the infarct-healing process. HMGB1, a novel predictor of adverse clinical outcomes after MI, may have an essential role in the appropriate healing process after MI.
"In the infarcted myocardium of rodents the expression of HMGB1 is upregulated after 2  or 3 days  depending on the model used. Furthermore, the elevated levels of HMGB1 in patients with acute coronary syndrome [95, 96] are associated with a decreased heart rate recovery, a marker of autonomic function defined as the fall in heart rate during the first minutes of exercise , and adverse LV remodeling  and predict secondary events, such as pump failure and cardiac rupture . This might reflect that increased amounts of HMGB1 are detrimental. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During myocardial infarction, sterile inflammation occurs. The danger model is a solid theoretic framework that explains this inflammation as danger associated molecular patterns activate the immune system. The innate immune system can sense danger signals through different pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) such as toll-like receptors, nod-like receptors and receptors for advanced glycation endproducts. Activation of a PRR results in the production of cytokines and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of injury. Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells, danger signals such as extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown products, mitochondrial DNA, heat shock proteins and high mobility box 1 are released. Matricellular proteins are non-structural proteins expressed in the ECM and are upregulated upon injury. Some members of the matricellular protein family (like tenascin-C, osteopontin, CCN1 and the galectins) have been implicated in the inflammatory and reparative responses following myocardial infarction and may function as danger signals. In a clinical setting, danger signals can function as prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers and for drug targeting. In this review we will provide an overview of the established knowledge on the role of danger signals in myocardial infarction and we will discuss areas of interest for future research.
Mediators of Inflammation 11/2013; 2013(2):206039. DOI:10.1155/2013/206039 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"The mechanisms of stem cell transplantation for the treatment of different disorders remain unclear at this time, and controversies exist about their use. Evidence suggests that the microenvironment of injury could affect the migration, adherence and differentiation of transplanted stem cells
[31-33]. Transplanted stem cells might transdifferentiate to tissue-specific cells, or fuse with the existing native cells, to improve the organ function by contributing their own genetic and cellular materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian dysfunction frequently occurs in female cancer patients after chemotherapy, but human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) that can differentiate into cell types that arise from all three germ layers may offer promise for restoration of such dysfunction. Previous studies confirmed that hAECs could differentiate into cells that express germ cell-specific markers, but at this time hAECs have not been shown to restore ovarian function.
To model premature ovarian failure, hAECs infected with lenti-virus carrying green fluorescent protein were injected into the tail vein of mice sterilized with cyclophosphamide and busulphan. hAECs migrated to the mouse ovaries and overall ovarian function was measured using immunohistochemical techniques.
Seven days to two months after hAECs transplantation, ovarian cells were morphologically restored in sterilized mice. Hemotoxylin and eosin staining revealed that restored ovarian cells developed follicles at all stages. No follicles were observed in control mice at the same time period. Immunostaining with anti-human antigen antibodies and pre-transplantation labeling with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that the grafted hAECs survived and migrated to mouse ovary, differentiating into granulosa cells. Furthermore, the ovarian function marker, anti-Müllerian hormone, was evident in treated mouse ovaries after hAEC transplantation.
Intravenously injected hAECs reached the ovaries of chemotherapy-treated mice and restored folliculogenesis, data which suggest promise for hAECs for promoting reproductive health and improving the quality of life for female cancer survivors.
"HMGB1 can be actively secreted by activated immune cells or passively released by necrotic cells, including cardiomyocytes [8, 9]. It has been reported that the serum HMGB1 level in patients with endotoxemia, sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction is significantly increased, and high serum HMGB1 level has been associated with pump failure, cardiac rupture, and inhospital cardiac death [10–15]. Furthermore, plasma levels of HMGB1 have been correlated with the severity of injury and tissue hypoperfusion . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In recent years, evidences suggest that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an inflammatory cytokine, participates in cardiac remodeling; however, the involvement of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HMGB1 is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to identify the possible mechanisms underlying the hypertrophic response. Cardiomyocytes isolated from 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant HMGB1, at concentrations ranging from 50 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. After 24 hours, cardiomyocytes were processed for the evaluation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and calcineurin A expression. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR was used to detect protein and mRNA expression levels, respectively. The activity of calcineurin was also evaluated using a biochemical enzyme assay. HMGB1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, characterized by enhanced expression of ANP, and increased protein synthesis. Meanwhile, increased calcineurin activity and calcineurin A protein expression were observed in cardiomyocytes preconditioned with HMGB1. Furthermore, cyclosporin A pretreatment partially inhibited the HMGB1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that HMGB1 leads to cardiac hypertrophy, at least in part through activating calcineurin.
Mediators of Inflammation 06/2012; 2012:805149. DOI:10.1155/2012/805149 · 3.24 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.