Article

Olfactory bulb alpha-synucleinopathy has high specificity and sensitivity for Lewy body disorders.

Sun Health Research Institute, 10515 West Santa Fe Drive, Sun City, AZ 85351, USA.
Acta Neuropathologica (Impact Factor: 9.78). 12/2008; 117(2):169-74. DOI: 10.1007/s00401-008-0450-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Involvement of the olfactory bulb by Lewy-type alpha-synucleinopathy (LTS) is known to occur at an early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body disorders and is therefore of potential usefulness diagnostically. An accurate estimate of the specificity and sensitivity of this change has not previously been available. We performed immunohistochemical alpha-synuclein staining of the olfactory bulb in 328 deceased individuals. All cases had received an initial neuropathological examination that included alpha-synuclein immunohistochemical staining on sections from brainstem, limbic and neocortical regions, but excluded olfactory bulb. These cases had been classified based on their clinical characteristics and brain regional distribution and density of LTS, as PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease with LTS (ADLS), Alzheimer's disease without LTS (ADNLS), incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) and elderly control subjects. The numbers of cases found to be positive and negative, respectively, for olfactory bulb LTS were: PD 55/3; DLB 34/1; ADLS 37/5; ADNLS 19/84; ILBD 14/7; elderly control subjects 5/64. The sensitivities and specificities were, respectively: 95 and 91% for PD versus elderly control; 97 and 91% for DLB versus elderly control; 88 and 91% for ADLS versus elderly control; 88 and 81% for ADLS versus ADNLS; 67 and 91% for ILBD versus elderly control. Olfactory bulb synucleinopathy density scores correlated significantly with synucleinopathy scores in all other brain regions (Spearman R values between 0.46 and 0.78) as well as with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Part 3 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (Spearman R -0.27, 0.35, respectively). It is concluded that olfactory bulb LTS accurately predicts the presence of LTS in other brain regions. It is suggested that olfactory bulb biopsy be considered to confirm the diagnosis in PD subjects being assessed for surgical therapy.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
113 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: α-synuclein plays a crucial role in Parkinson's disease and dementias defined as synucleinopathies. α-synuclein is expressed in hematopoietic and immune cells, but its functions in hematopoiesis and immune responses are unknown. We utilized α-synuclein-/− (KO) mice to investigate its role in hematopoiesis and B cell lymphopoiesis. We demonstrated hematologic abnormalities including mild anemia, smaller platelets, lymphopenia but relatively normal early hematopoiesis in KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) as measured in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors of the different cell lineages. However, the absolute number of B220+IgM+ B cells in bone marrow was reduced by 4-fold in KO mice (WT: 104 ± 23 × 105 vs. KO: 27 ± 5 × 105). B cells were also reduced in KO spleens associated with effacement of splenic and lymph node architecture. KO mice showed reduced total serum IgG but no abnormality in serum IgM was noted. When KO mice were challenged with a T cell-dependent antigen, production of antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2b was abolished, but antigen specific IgM was not different from WT mice. Our study shows hematologic abnormalities including anemia and smaller platelets, reduced B cell lymphopoiesis and defects in IgG production in the absence of α-synuclein. This is the first report to show an important role of α-synuclein late in hematopoiesis, B cell lymphopoiesis and adaptive immune response
    Immunobiology 11/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progressive olfactory impairment is one of the earliest markers of neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanism for this dysfunction remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible role of microgliosis in olfactory deficits using a mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), which is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder with disrupted lipid trafficking. At 7weeks of age, NPC1 mutants showed a distinct olfactory impairment in an olfactory test compared with age-matched wild-type controls (WT). The marked loss of olfactory sensory neurons within the NPC1 affected olfactory bulb (NPC1-OB) suggests that NPC1 dysfunction impairs olfactory structure. Furthermore, the pool of neuroblasts in the OB was diminished in NPC1 mice despite the intact proliferative capacity of neural stem/progenitor cells in the subventricular zone. Instead, pro-inflammatory proliferating microglia accumulated extensively in the NPC1-OB as the disease progressed. To evaluate the impact of abnormal microglial activation on olfaction in NPC1 mice, a microglial inhibition study was performed using the anti-inflammatory agent Cyclosporin A (CsA). Importantly, long-term CsA treatment in NPC1 mice reduced reactive microgliosis, restored the survival of newly generated neurons in the OB and improved overall performance on the olfactory test. Therefore, our study highlights the possible role of microglia in the regulation of neuronal turnover in the OB and provides insight into the possible therapeutic applications of microglial inhibition in the attenuation or reversal of olfactory impairment.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 08/2014; · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well-established and may represent one of the earliest signs of the disease.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
49 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014