Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.
ABSTRACT Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p < 0.001). No differences were found between the groups for knee extension power. The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that may have a negative effect on dynamic knee-joint stabilization.
- SourceAvailable from: Ulrik Dalgas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine potential deficits in muscle strength or functional capacity when comparing (1) an ACL reconstructed group to matched healthy controls, (2) the ACL reconstructed leg to the non-injured leg and (3) the non-injured leg to matched healthy controls, at the time-point of recommended sport return 9-12months post-surgery. Sixteen patients (male-female ratio: 9:7) 9-12months post ACL reconstruction and sixteen age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Outcome measures included maximal knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) dynamometry, including measurement of rate of force development, functional capacity (counter movement jump (CMJ) and single distance hop (SDH)) and the Lysholm score. Compared to the control group, maximal KE and KF muscle strength were impaired in the ACL reconstructed leg by 27-39% and 16-35%, respectively (p<.001). Also, impairments of both CMJ (38%) and SDH (33%) were observed (p<.001). Rate of force development for KE were reduced in the ACL group compared to the control group (p<.001). Similarly, the KE and KF muscle strength, CMJ and SDH of the ACL reconstructed leg were impaired, when compared to the non-injured leg by 15-23%, 8-20%, 23% and 20%, respectively (p<.05). Muscle strength and functional capacity are markedly impaired in the ACL reconstructed leg of recreationally active people 9-12months post-surgery when compared to healthy matched controls and to their non-injured leg. This suggests that objective criteria rather than "time-since-surgery" criteria should guide return to sport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Human Movement Science 11/2014; 39C:73-87. DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.10.008 · 2.03 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Severe traumatic knee injury, including injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), leads to impaired sensorimotor function. Although improvements are achieved by training, impairment often persists. Because good sensorimotor function is associated with better patient-reported function and a potential lower risk of future joint problems, more effective treatment is warranted. Temporary cutaneous anesthesia of adjacent body parts was successfully used on the hand and foot to improve sensorimotor function. The aim of this study was to test whether this principle of brain plasticity could be used on the knee. The hypothesis was that temporary anesthesia of the skin area above and below the knee would improve sensorimotor function of the ipsilateral knee and leg in subjects with ACL injury. In this double-blind exploratory study, 39 subjects with ACL injury (mean age 24 years, SD 5.2, 49% women, mean 52 weeks after injury or reconstruction) and self-reported functional limitations and lack of trust in the knee were randomized to temporary local cutaneous application of anesthetic (EMLA®) (n = 20) or placebo cream (n = 19). Fifty grams of EMLA®, or placebo, was applied on the leg 10 cm above and 10 cm below the center of patella, leaving the area around the knee without cream. Measures of sensory function (perception of touch, vibration sense, knee kinesthesia) and motor function (knee muscle strength, hop test) were assessed before and after 90 minutes of treatment with EMLA® or placebo. The paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and analysis of variance between groups, except for ordinal data where the Wilcoxon signed rank test, or Mann-Whitney test, was used. The number of subjects needed was determined by an a priori sample size calculation. No statistically significant or clinically relevant differences were seen over time (before vs. after) in the measures of sensory or motor functions in the EMLA® group or in the placebo group. There were no differences between the groups due to treatment effect (EMLA® vs. placebo). Temporary cutaneous anesthesia of adjacent body parts had no effect in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in subjects with severe traumatic knee ligament injury.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 05/2012; 13:68. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-68 · 1.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is limited information in the literature regarding hamstring pain and muscle strains in patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autograft. We sought to investigate whether dividing hamstring tendons distal to the musculotendinous junction rather than forcefully stripping tendons away from the muscle belly during graft harvest resulted in a lower incidence of hamstring pain, muscle strains, and leg flexion strength deficit following commencement of sport-specific training postoperatively. Patients were randomized to either the "Cut" or "Push" groups of hamstring tendon harvesting. All other operative techniques were uniform. A total of 34 (cut = 20, push = 14) patients had a mean follow-up of 30 months, and assessments were conducted by a blinded single practitioner. A customized hamstring strain questionnaire and visual analogue pain score provided information for the study's primary focus: evaluation of postoperative hamstring pain and muscle strains. Leg flexion strength was also measured and a full knee assessment was conducted. The Cincinnati sports activity rating scale (SARS) was used to account for varying degrees of sporting participation and intensity since reconstruction. The "Cut" group's mean visual analogue score was 10.05 mm, significantly lower than the "Push" group (24.66 mm, p = 0.0398). The Cut group also recorded a significant reduction in the incidence of hamstring strains following ACL reconstruction (5/20 patients 25%) compared with the Push group (7/14 patients 50%, p = 0.045). There was no difference in leg flexion strength between the groups. Of the patients who reported hamstring strains, there was no significant difference in the mean Cincinnati SARS between the groups, nor any difference in overall knee function. The incidence of hamstring pain and muscle strains was significantly reduced in patients receiving the "cut" technique of harvesting hamstring tendons in ACL reconstruction surgery, a difference that was not attributable to a lower level of sporting activity.The journal of knee surgery 09/2012; 26(2). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1324811