Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.
ABSTRACT Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p < 0.001). No differences were found between the groups for knee extension power. The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that may have a negative effect on dynamic knee-joint stabilization.
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ABSTRACT: The long-term results after using the iliotibial band autograft (ITB) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are not fully known. If equal in quality to conventional methods, the ITB graft could be a useful alternative as a primary graft, in revision surgery or multi-ligament reconstruction. The purpose is to assess whether the ITB autograft is a long-term reliable alternative to the bone-patella-tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft, using a prospective randomized controlled trial design. From 1995 to 1996, sixty patients scheduled for primary ACL reconstruction were included in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Three senior knee surgeons, experienced in both types of ACL surgery, performed all the operations. A standardized and supervised rehabilitation programme was used for both groups for 6 months. Thirty patients received the ITB reconstruction, and 30 received the BPTB reconstruction. Forty-nine participated at follow-up in 2010 (82 %). Primary outcome was the failure rate after ACL reconstruction. Secondary outcomes were knee injury osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) [pain, symptoms, Sport/Rec, quality of life (QOL), daily living function], Tegner activity scale, anterior knee pain-score, Lysholm score, Rolimeter laxity, extension deficit, single hop and crossover hop for distance. At 15-year follow-up, no significant difference existed between the groups. Graft failure occurred in 4 ITB subjects (16 %) and 3 BPTB subjects (13 %). KOOS (Sport/Rec) for the ITB group was 75 and 73 for the BPTB group. The KOOS (QOL) was 72 and 68 for the ITB group and BPTB group, respectively. Similar graft failure rates and KOOS were found when comparing ITB- and BPTB-operated individuals, at 15-year follow-up. The ITB graft had equal long-term clinical results compared to the BPTB graft and is recommended as a reliable alternative autograft for ACL reconstruction. Therapeutic studies, Level I.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare objective and subjective outcome in patients 2 and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) or hamstring grafts. The second aim was to report the prevalence of re- and contralateral ACL ruptures. Sixty-eight patients (BPTB, n = 34 and hamstring graft, n = 34) were evaluated preoperatively, 2 and 5 years after ACL reconstruction. Anterior knee laxity and rotational knee joint stability, muscle torque, hop length, anterior knee pain, activity level and self-reported knee function and quality of life were evaluated within and between groups. The prevalence of re- and contralateral ACL ruptures was also recorded. No significant difference in anterior knee laxity, rotational knee joint stability, hop length anterior knee pain or knee function and quality of life were noted at the 5-year follow-up. No significant differences in concentric or eccentric quadriceps torque at 90°/s and 230°/s were found at any of the follow-ups between and within grafts. A significant group difference in hamstring torque 1.05 (0.02) for BPTB and 0.89 (0.02) for hamstring grafts, and in hop length (leg symmetry index) follow-up 0.94 (0.07) for BPTB compared to 0.99 (0.07) for hamstring grafts (P = 0.002) was found at the 2 year follow-up in favour of the BPTB graft, but not at the 5 year follow-up. A significant improvement over time, irrespective of graft, was found in the KOOS's subscales Sport/Rec and quality of life (P < 0.001). None of the patients, irrespective of group, returned to their pre-injury level of sport (P < 0.05). Over the five postoperative years, one man and eight women (13 %) (hamstring graft, n = 5 and BPTB graft, n = 4), sustained a total of 11 (16.2 %) new ACL ruptures: seven (10.2 %) re-ruptures and four (5.9 %) ruptures of the contralateral ACL. At the 5-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in terms of anterior knee laxity, rotational knee joint stability, muscle torque, anterior knee pain, hop performance, quality of life or activity level between patients who had undergone reconstruction with BPTB or hamstring grafts. None of the patients, irrespective of group, had returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Eight out of the nine patients who had sustained a second ACL rupture were women. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 10/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n = 24) or LRT (n = 26) from week 8-20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86-94%) of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60-69%) 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P = 0.020). Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.027) and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.006) without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:278512. · 2.88 Impact Factor