Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) could block tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced over-expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs-L). Cells were treated with various concentrations of TNF-alpha with or without Rb1 pre-treatment for 16 h. The mRNA and protein levels of VCAM-1 were determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. Human monocytic THP-1 cells labeled with fluorescent dye (Calcein-AM) was used for the adhesion assay on HUVEC monolayers. Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to demonstrate in situ levels of superoxide production. JC-1 dye was used to measure changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was determined by Bio-Plex immunoassay. TNF-alpha treatment significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of VCAM-1 in HUVECs in a dose dependent manner. Rb1 pre-treatment effectively blocked the TNF-alpha-induced expression of VCAM-1 mRNA or protein by 80% and 43%, respectively (p<0.01). THP-1 adhesion was also blocked. Furthermore, Rb1 reduced the TNF-alpha-induced increase of superoxide anion production by 41% and inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential by 44% in HUVECs. Rb1 also effectively blocked TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and IkappaBalpha. In conclusion, Rb1 effectively blocked the TNF-alpha-induced over-expression of VCAM-1, increased THP-1 adhesion and over-production of superoxide anion. Furthermore, Rb1 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced MAPKs and NF-kappaB activation. These data suggested that Rb1 might have potential therapeutic effects in controlling inflammation in vascular diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Cell-cell adhesion managed by various adhesion molecules is known to be one of important phenomena found in numerous immunological responses or diseases such as immunostimulation, rheumatoid arthritis and allergic diseases. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of ginsenosides (G)-Rb1, reported to display immunostimulatory and anticancer effects, on cell adhesion, the up-regulation of surface adhesion molecules and morphological changes using monocytic U937 and macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. G-Rb1 significantly up-regulated U937 cell-cell adhesion mediated by both CD29 and CD43. It also enhanced U937 cell-fibronectin adhesion, while CD29 blocking antibody P5D2 strongly suppressed it. In agreement, this compound also significantly increased the surface level of CD29 as well as CD43. Furthermore, this compound differentially modulated CD82 up-regulation and morphological changes triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Therefore, these results suggest that G-Rb1 may have differential modulatory function on cell adhesion events, surface molecule expression and morphological changes responsible for immune responses.Journal of ginseng research 12/2009; 33(4). · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TNF-α activates ephrin A1 in endothelial cells via the NFκB pathway.•Ephrin A1 is involved in TNF-α-mediated activation of endothelial cells.•Ephrin A1 regulates the trafficking of adhesion receptors in endothelial cells.•Ephrin A1 has a proadhesive effect on endothelial cells by activating EphA4.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A). We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX) for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3(+)/CD69(+), CD4(+)/CD25(+), CD8(+) T-cell, CD19(+), B220/CD23(+) B-cell, MHCII(+)/CD11c(+), and Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:748964. · 2.42 Impact Factor