Analysis of glucose transporter topology and structural dynamics.
ABSTRACT Homology modeling and scanning cysteine mutagenesis studies suggest that the human glucose transport protein GLUT1 and its distant bacterial homologs LacY and GlpT share similar structures. We tested this hypothesis by mapping the accessibility of purified, reconstituted human erythrocyte GLUT1 to aqueous probes. GLUT1 contains 35 potential tryptic cleavage sites. Fourteen of 16 lysine residues and 18 of 19 arginine residues were accessible to trypsin. GLUT1 lysine residues were modified by isothiocyanates and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters in a substrate-dependent manner. Twelve lysine residues were accessible to sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin. GLUT1 trypsinization released full-length transmembrane helix 1, cytoplasmic loop 6-7, and the long cytoplasmic C terminus from membranes. Trypsin-digested GLUT1 retained cytochalasin B and d-glucose binding capacity and released full-length transmembrane helix 8 upon cytochalasin B (but not D-glucose) binding. Transmembrane helix 8 release did not abrogate cytochalasin B binding. GLUT1 was extensively proteolyzed by alpha-chymotrypsin, which cuts putative pore-forming amphipathic alpha-helices 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 11 at multiple sites to release transmembrane peptide fragments into the aqueous solvent. Putative scaffolding membrane helices 3, 6, 9, and 12 are strongly hydrophobic, resistant to alpha-chymotrypsin, and retained by the membrane bilayer. These observations provide experimental support for the proposed GLUT1 architecture; indicate that the proposed topology of membrane helices 5, 6, and 12 requires adjustment; and suggest that the metastable conformations of transmembrane helices 1 and 8 within the GLUT1 scaffold destabilize a sugar translocation intermediate.
- SourceAvailable from: Gonzalo L Vilas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the SLC4A11 gene, which encodes a plasma membrane borate transporter, cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial corneal dystrophy type 2 (CHED2), corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness (Harboyan syndrome), and dominant late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). We analyzed missense SLC4A11 mutations identified in FECD and CHED2 patients and expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells. Chemical cross-linking and migration in nondenaturing gels showed that SLC4A11 exists as a dimer. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged proteins revealed heteromeric interactions between wild-type (WT) and mutant SLC4A11 proteins. When expressed alone, FECD- and CHED2-causing mutant SLC4A11 proteins are primarily retained intracellularly. Co-expression with WT SLC4A11 partially rescued the cell surface trafficking of CHED2 mutants, but not FECD mutants. CHED2 alleles of SLC4A11 did not affect cell surface processing of WT SLC4A11. In contrast, FECD mutants reduced WT cell surface processing efficiency, consistent with dominant inheritance of FECD. The reduction in movement of WT protein to the cell surface caused by FECD SLC4A11 helps to explain the dominant inheritance of this disorder. Similarly, the failure of CHED2 mutant SLC4A11 to affect the processing of WT protein, explains the lack of symptoms found in CHED2 carriers and the recessive inheritance of the disorder.Human Mutation 02/2012; 33(2):419-28. DOI:10.1002/humu.21655 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transmembrane helix 9 of the Glut1 glucose transporter was analyzed by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM). A cysteine-less (C-less) template transporter containing amino acid substitutions for the six native cysteine residues present in human Glut1 was used to generate a series of 21 mutant transporters by substituting each successive residue in predicted transmembrane segment 9 with a cysteine residue. The mutant proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and their specific transport activities were directly compared to that of the parental C-less molecule whose function has been shown to be indistinguishable from that of native Glut1. Only a single mutant (G340C) had activity that was reduced (by 75%) relative to that of the C-less parent. These data suggest that none of the amino acid side chains in helix 9 is absolutely required for transport function and that this helix is not likely to be directly involved in substrate binding or translocation. Transport activity of the cysteine mutants was also tested after incubation of oocytes in the presence of the impermeant sulfhydryl-specific reagent, p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS). Only a single mutant (T352C) exhibited transport inhibition in the presence of pCMBS, and the extent of inhibition was minimal (11%), indicating that only a very small portion of helix 9 is accessible to the external solvent. These results are consistent with the conclusion that helix 9 plays an outer stabilizing role for the inner helical bundle predicted to form the exofacial substrate-binding site. All 12 of the predicted transmembrane segments of Glut1 encompassing 252 amino acid residues and more than 50% of the complete polypeptide sequence have now been analyzed by scanning mutagenesis and SCAM. An updated model is presented for the outward-facing substrate-binding site and relative orientation of the 12 transmembrane helices of Glut1.Biochemistry 06/2009; 48(25):5934-42. DOI:10.1021/bi900521n · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monosaccharides enter cells by slow translipid bilayer diffusion by rapid, protein-mediated, cation-dependent cotransport and by rapid, protein-mediated equilibrative transport. This review addresses protein-mediated, equilibrative glucose transport catalyzed by GLUT1, the first equilibrative glucose transporter to be identified, purified, and cloned. GLUT1 is a polytopic, membrane-spanning protein that is one of 13 members of the human equilibrative glucose transport protein family. We review GLUT1 catalytic and ligand-binding properties and interpret these behaviors in the context of several putative mechanisms for protein-mediated transport. We conclude that no single model satisfactorily explains GLUT1 behavior. We then review GLUT1 topology, subunit architecture, and oligomeric structure and examine a new model for sugar transport that combines structural and kinetic analyses to satisfactorily reproduce GLUT1 behavior in human erythrocytes. We next review GLUT1 cell biology and the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of GLUT1 expression in the context of development and in response to glucose perturbations and hypoxia in blood-tissue barriers. Emphasis is placed on transgenic GLUT1 overexpression and null mutant model systems, the latter serving as surrogates for the human GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. Finally, we review the role of GLUT1 in the absence or deficiency of a related isoform, GLUT3, toward establishing the physiological significance of coordination between these two isoforms.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2009; 297(4):E836-48. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00496.2009 · 4.09 Impact Factor