Analysis of Glucose Transporter Topology and Structural Dynamics

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 12/2008; 283(52):36416-24. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M804802200
Source: PubMed


Homology modeling and scanning cysteine mutagenesis studies suggest that the human glucose transport protein GLUT1 and its distant bacterial homologs LacY and GlpT share similar structures. We tested this hypothesis by mapping the accessibility of purified, reconstituted human erythrocyte GLUT1 to aqueous probes. GLUT1 contains 35 potential tryptic cleavage sites. Fourteen of 16 lysine residues and 18 of 19 arginine residues were accessible to trypsin. GLUT1 lysine residues were modified by isothiocyanates and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters in a substrate-dependent manner. Twelve lysine residues were accessible to sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin. GLUT1 trypsinization released full-length transmembrane helix 1, cytoplasmic loop 6-7, and the long cytoplasmic C terminus from membranes. Trypsin-digested GLUT1 retained cytochalasin B and d-glucose binding capacity and released full-length transmembrane helix 8 upon cytochalasin B (but not D-glucose) binding. Transmembrane helix 8 release did not abrogate cytochalasin B binding. GLUT1 was extensively proteolyzed by alpha-chymotrypsin, which cuts putative pore-forming amphipathic alpha-helices 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 11 at multiple sites to release transmembrane peptide fragments into the aqueous solvent. Putative scaffolding membrane helices 3, 6, 9, and 12 are strongly hydrophobic, resistant to alpha-chymotrypsin, and retained by the membrane bilayer. These observations provide experimental support for the proposed GLUT1 architecture; indicate that the proposed topology of membrane helices 5, 6, and 12 requires adjustment; and suggest that the metastable conformations of transmembrane helices 1 and 8 within the GLUT1 scaffold destabilize a sugar translocation intermediate.

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    • "Upon DTT treatment, the intensity of the 100 kDa monomeric form of AE1 dramatically increased, confirming that the high molecular weight complexes observed are composed of two AE1 monomers. To detect nonspecific cross-linking activity, GLUT1 (MIM# 138140; HUGO SLC2a1), an endogenous monomeric membrane protein in epithelial cells [Blodgett et al., 2008; Hebert and Carruthers, 1991; Zuo et al., 2003], was immunodetected in lysates of SLC4A11-transfected cells (Fig. 1A, right). GLUT1 migrated as an approximately 50-kDa band in both reduced and nonreduced samples, indicating that the protein did not cross-link to a higher molecular weight form. "
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