Ankyrin repeat domain 1, ANKRD1, a novel determinant of cisplatin sensitivity expressed in ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT The standard of care for ovarian cancer includes platinum-based chemotherapy. It is not possible, however, to predict clinical platinum sensitivity or to design rational strategies to overcome resistance. We used a novel approach to identify altered gene expression associated with high sensitivity to cisplatin, to define novel targets to sensitize tumor cells to platins and ultimately improve the effectiveness of this widely used class of chemotherapeutics.
Using differential display PCR, we identified genes differentially expressed in a mutagenized cell line with unusual sensitivity to cisplatin. The most highly differentially expressed gene was selected, and its role in determining cisplatin sensitivity was validated by gene transfection and small interfering RNA (siRNA) approaches, by association of expression levels with cisplatin sensitivity in cell lines, and by association of tumor expression levels with survival in a retrospective cohort of 71 patients with serous ovarian adenocarcinoma.
The most highly differently expressed gene identified was ANKRD1, ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle). ANKRD1 mRNA levels were correlated with platinum sensitivity in cell lines, and most significantly, decreasing ANKRD1 using siRNA increased cisplatin sensitivity >2-fold. ANKRD1 was expressed in the majority of ovarian adenocarcinomas tested (62/71, 87%), and higher tumor levels of ANKRD1 were found in patients with worse outcome (overall survival, P=0.013).
These findings suggest that ANKRD1, a gene not previously associated with ovarian cancer or with response to chemotherapy, is associated with treatment outcome, and decreasing ANKRD1 expression, or function, is a potential strategy to sensitize tumors to platinum-based drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Improving screening and treatment options for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer has been a major challenge in cancer research. Development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, particularly for the most common subtype, high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), has been hampered by controversies over the origin of the disease and a lack of spontaneous HGSC models to resolve this controversy. Over long-term culture in our laboratory, an ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell line spontaneously transformed OSE (STOSE). The objective of this study was to determine if the STOSE cell line is a good model of HGSC. STOSE cells grow faster than early passage parental M0505 cells with a doubling time of 13 and 48 h, respectively. STOSE cells form colonies in soft agar, an activity for which M0505 cells have negligible capacity. Microarray analysis identified 1755 down-regulated genes and 1203 up-regulated genes in STOSE compared to M0505 cells, many associated with aberrant Wnt/β-catenin and Nf-κB signaling. Upregulation of Ccnd1 and loss of Cdkn2a in STOSE tumors is consistent with changes identified in human ovarian cancers by The Cancer Genome Atlas. Intraperitoneal injection of STOSE cells into severe combined immunodeficient and syngeneic FVB/N mice produced cytokeratin+, WT1+, inhibin-, and PAX8+ tumors, a histotype resembling human HGSC. Based on evidence that a SCA1+ stem cell-like population exists in M0505 cells, we examined a subpopulation of SCA1+ cells that is present in STOSE cells. Compared to SCA1- cells, SCA1+ STOSE cells have increased colony-forming capacity and form palpable tumors 8 days faster after intrabursal injection into FVB/N mice. This study has identified the STOSE cells as the first spontaneous murine model of HGSC and provides evidence for the OSE as a possible origin of HGSC. Furthermore, this model provides a novel opportunity to study how normal stem-like OSE cells may transform into tumor-initiating cells.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2014; 4:53.
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ABSTRACT: High expression of Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 (ANKRD1) in ovarian carcinoma is associated with poor survival, and in ovarian cancer cell lines is associated with platinum resistance. Importantly, decreasing ANKRD1 expression using siRNA increases cisplatin sensitivity. In this study, we investigated possible mechanisms underlying the association of ANKRD1 with cisplatin response. We first demonstrated that cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines was associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, evidenced by induction of Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) and increased intracellular Ca(2+) release. The level of sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was associated with ANKRD1 protein levels and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. COLO 316 ovarian cancer cells, which express high ANKRD1 levels, were relatively resistant to cisplatin, and ER stress-induced apoptosis, whereas OAW42 and PEO14 cells, which express lower ANKRD1 levels, are more sensitive to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of ANKRD1 attenuated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, and conversely siRNA knockdown of ANKRD1 sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and ER stress-induced apoptosis associated with induction of GADD153, and downregulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. Taken together, these results suggest that ANKRD1 has a significant role in the regulation of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, and is a potential molecular target to enhance sensitivity of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 17 February 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.566.Oncogene 02/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gene ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) is an enigmatic gene and may exert pleiotropic function dependent on its expression level, subcellular localization and even types of pathological stress, but it remains unclear how these factors influence the fate of cardiomyocytes. Here we attempted to investigate the role of CARP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), angiotensin II (Ang II) increased the expression of both calpain 1 and CARP, and also induced cytosolic translocation of CARP, which was abrogated by a calpain inhibitor. In the presence of Ang-II in NRVCs, infection with a recombinant adenovirus containing rat Ankrd1 cDNA (Ad-Ankrd1) enhanced myocyte hypertrophy, the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain genes and calcineurin proteins as well as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Cyclosporin A attenuated Ad-Ankrd1-enhanced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Intra-myocardial injection of Ad-Ankrd1 in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) markedly increased the cytosolic CARP level, the heart weight/body weight ratio, while short hairpin RNA targeting Ankrd1 inhibited TAC-induced hypertrophy. The expression of calcineurin was also significantly increased in Ad-Ankrd1-infected TAC mice. Olmesartan (an Ang II receptor antagonist) prevented the upregulation of CARP in both Ang II-stimulated NRVCs and hearts with pressure overload. These findings indicate that overexpression of Ankrd1 exacerbates pathological cardiac remodeling through the enhancement of cytosolic translocation of CARP and upregulation of calcineurin.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104040. · 3.53 Impact Factor