A crucial role of caldesmon in vascular development in vivo.
ABSTRACT We explored the in vivo effects of knockdown of caldesmon on vascular development in zebrafish.
We investigated the effects of caldesmon knockdown on the vascular development in a zebrafish model with special attention for the trunk and head vessels including the aortic arches. We examined the developing fishes at various time points. The vascular abnormalities observed in the caldesmon morphants were morphologically and functionally characterized in detail in fixed and living embryos. The knockdown of caldesmon caused serious defects in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in zebrafish morphants, and the vascular integrity and blood circulation were concomitantly impaired.
The data provide the first functional assessment of the role of caldesmon in vascular development in vivo, indicating that this molecule plays a crucial role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo. Interfering with caldesmon opens new therapeutic avenues for anti-angiogenesis in cancer and ischaemic cardiovascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: Caldesmon (CaD) is an important actin modulator that associates with actin filaments to regulate cell morphology and motility. Although extensively studied in cultured cells, there is little functional information regarding the role of CaD in migrating cells in vivo. Here we show that nonmuscle CaD is highly expressed in both premigratory and migrating cranial neural crest cells of Xenopus embryos. Depletion of CaD with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes cranial neural crest cells to migrate a significantly shorter distance, prevents their segregation into distinct migratory streams, and later results in severe defects in cartilage formation. Demonstrating specificity, these effects are rescued by adding back exogenous CaD. Interestingly, CaD proteins with mutations in the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-binding sites or ErK/Cdk1 phosphorylation sites fail to rescue the knockdown phenotypes, whereas mutation of the PAK phosphorylation site is able to rescue them. Analysis of neural crest explants reveals that CaD is required for the dynamic arrangements of actin and, thus, for cell shape changes and process formation. Taken together, these results suggest that the actin-modulating activity of CaD may underlie its critical function and is regulated by distinct signaling pathways during normal neural crest migration.Molecular biology of the cell 07/2011; 22(18):3355-65. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The high molecular weight isoform of the actin-binding protein Caldesmon (h-CaD) regulates smooth muscle contractile function by modulating cross-bridge cycling of myosin heads. The normal inhibitory activity of h-CaD is regulated by the enteric nervous system; however, the role of h-CaD during intestinal peristalsis has never been studied. We identified a zebrafish paralog of the human CALD1 gene that encodes an h-CaD isoform expressed in intestinal smooth muscle. We examined the role of h-CaD during intestinal peristalsis in zebrafish larvae by knocking down the h-CaD protein using an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. We also developed transgenic zebrafish that express inhibitory peptides derived from the h-CaD myosin and actin-binding domains, and examined their effect on peristalsis in wild-type zebrafish larvae and sox10 (colourless) mutant larvae that lack enteric nerves. Genomic analyses identified two zebrafish Caldesmon paralogs. The cald1a ortholog encoded a high molecular weight isoform generated by alternative splicing whose intestinal expression was restricted to smooth muscle. Propulsive intestinal peristalsis was increased in wild-type zebrafish larvae by h-CaD knockdown and by expression of transgenes encoding inhibitory myosin and actin-binding domain peptides. Peristalsis in the non-innervated intestine of sox10 (colourless) larvae was partially restored by h-CaD knockdown and expression of the myosin-binding peptide. Disruption of the normal inhibitory function of h-CaD enhances intestinal peristalsis in both wild-type zebrafish larvae and mutant larvae that lack enteric nerves, thus confirming a physiologic role for regulation of smooth muscle contraction at the actin filament.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 03/2012; 24(3):288-99. · 2.94 Impact Factor
- 03/2012: pages 219-320; , ISBN: 978-0-470-96008-0