Fine Ambient Particles from Various Sites in Europe Exerted a Greater IgE Adjuvant Effect than Coarse Ambient Particles in a Mouse Model

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Environmental Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A (Impact Factor: 2.35). 02/2009; 72(1):1-13. DOI: 10.1080/15287390802414471
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the European Union (EU)-funded project Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation due to Ambient Particles (RAIAP), coarse and fine ambient particulate matter (PM) was collected at traffic dominated locations in Oslo, Rome, Lodz, and Amsterdam, in the spring, summer, and winter 2001/2002. PM was also collected in de Zilk, a rural seaside background location in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to screen the ambient PM fractions for allergy adjuvant activity measured as the production of allergen- (ovalbumin-) specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E following subcutaneous (sc) injection into the footpad of mice. A second aim was to determine whether the 6-d popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay can be used to detect an allergy adjuvant activity. Allergy screening for IgE adjuvant activity showed that in the presence of ovalbumin (Ova) 12 out of 13 of the fine ambient PM fractions exerted a significant IgE adjuvant activity. In contrast, only 3 out of 13 of the coarse PM fractions had significant adjuvant activity. Overall, fine ambient PM exerted significantly greater IgE adjuvant activity per unit mass than coarse PM. No significant differences were observed between locations or seasons. Substantial higher levels of specific components of PM such as vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), ammonium (NH(4)), and sulfate (SO(4)) were present in the fine compared to coarse PM fractions. However, differences in the content of these components among fine PM fractions did not reflect the variation in the levels of IgE anti-Ova. Still, when comparing all seasons overall, positive correlations were observed between V, Ni, and SO(4) and the allergen specific IgE levels. The PLN responses (weight and cell number) to Ova and ambient PM in combination were significantly higher than to Ova or PM alone. Still, the PLN assay appears not to be useful as a quantitative assay for screening of allergy adjuvant activity since no correlation was observed between PLN responses and allergen specific IgE levels. In conclusion, fine ambient PM fractions consistently were found to increase the allergen-specific IgE responses more than the coarse ones. Our finding is in agreement with the notion that traffic-related air pollution contributes to the disease burden in asthma and allergy, and points to fine and ultrafine ambient PM as the most important fractions in relation to allergic diseases.

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    • "Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between the incidence of allergic diseases and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM).4,5 PM can exert adverse effects on the respiratory tract, which may increase the prevalence of allergic diseases associated with the physicochemistry of PM.6,7 Recent studies have indicated that nano-scaled PM, particularly nanoparticles (NP), induce immunotoxic and allergic responses,8,9 which represent a new and plausible health risk for healthy and asthmatic individuals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been associated with the exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the allergenicity and toxicology of AgNP in healthy and allergic individuals are unclear. We investigated the pathophysiological responses to AgNP inhalation in a murine model of asthma. Continuous and stable levels of 33 nm AgNP were maintained at 3.3 mg/m(3) during the experimental period. AgNP exposure concomitant with ovalbumin challenge increased the enhanced pause (Penh) in the control and allergic groups. AgNP evoked neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration into the airways and elevated the levels of allergic markers (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and leukotriene E4 [LTE4]), the type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13), and oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in healthy and allergic mice. Bronchocentric interstitial inflammation was observed after AgNP inhalation. After inhalation, the AgNP accumulated predominantly in the lungs, and trivial amounts of AgNP were excreted in the urine and feces. Furthermore, the AgNP induced inflammatory responses in the peritoneum. The inhalation of AgNP may present safety concerns in healthy and susceptible individuals.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 11/2013; 8:4495-4506. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S52239 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The potential combination of sulfates and metals to exacerbate allergic responses is consistent with results from a comparison study of PM2.5 collected from two German communities [30], which showed that PM samples with higher sulfates, Pb and other metals were more potent airway inflammagens in both allergic and normal mice. In another comparison study of PM2.5 collected from several European cities, the potency of PM to elicit immune response in mice was associated with V, Ni, and SO4 content of particles [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Increases in ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PM2.5 derived from two distinct urban U.S. communities would induce variable responses to aggravate airway symptoms during experimental asthma. Methods We used a mobile laboratory to conduct community-based inhalation exposures to laboratory rats with ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease. In Grand Rapids exposures were conducted within 60 m of a major roadway, whereas the Detroit was located in an industrial area more than 400 m from roadways. Immediately after nasal allergen challenge, Brown Norway rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to either concentrated air particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 8 h (7:00 AM - 3:00 PM). Both ambient and concentrated PM2.5 was assessed for mass, size fractionation, and major component analyses, and trace element content. Sixteen hours after exposures, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung lobes were collected and evaluated for airway inflammatory and mucus responses. Results Similar CAPs mass concentrations were generated in Detroit (542 μg/m3) and Grand Rapids (519 μg/m3). Exposure to CAPs at either site had no effects in lungs of non-allergic rats. In contrast, asthmatic rats had 200% increases in airway mucus and had more BALF neutrophils (250% increase), eosinophils (90%), and total protein (300%) compared to controls. Exposure to Detroit CAPs enhanced all allergic inflammatory endpoints by 30-100%, whereas inhalation of Grand Rapids CAPs suppressed all allergic responses by 50%. Detroit CAPs were characterized by high sulfate, smaller sized particles and were derived from local combustion sources. Conversely Grand Rapids CAPs were derived primarily from motor vehicle sources. Conclusions Despite inhalation exposure to the same mass concentration of urban PM2.5, disparate health effects can be elicited in the airways of sensitive populations such as asthmatics. Modulation of airway inflammatory and immune responses is therefore dependent on specific chemical components and size distributions of urban PM2.5. Our results suggest that air quality standards based on particle speciation and sources may be more relevant than particle mass to protect human health from PM exposure.
    Environmental Health 07/2012; 11(1):45. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-11-45 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Previously, Hetland and co-workers concluded that the cytokine-inducing potential of collected ambient urban PM (European RAIAP project) varied between sampling site and season (Hetland et al. 2005). A study by Alberg published in 2009 (Alberg et al. 2009) found that trafficrelated air pollution contributes to the disease burden in asthma and allergy and pointed to fine and ultrafine PM in ambient air as the most important fractions in relation to allergic diseases. However, it remains unclear whether these size fractions taken individually, collected in a rural setting, are of the same importance as those obtained in an urban location. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric fine particulates act as prime vehicles for the transport of toxic chemicals into the human respiratory system on a daily basis and adverse human health effects do exist. By examining toxicological differences and chemical composition of ambient fine particles using a novel experimental design and chemometric approach, the present work examines the hypothesis: that it is not clear whether there are significant differences in public health risk from exposure to fine particles in a rural location compared to those in urban locations. In the present study, an investigation into the inorganic chemical characteristics and biological effects of PM2.5–0.1 on human lung epithelial cell line A549 has been performed. Biological responses were evaluated by in vitro tests using equivalent masses of PM2.5–0.1 samples, collected during different seasons at urban and rural locations in Cork, Ireland. The relationship between the biological responses and the chemical composition of the samples were investigated using Principal Component Analysis followed by Partial Least Squares regression analysis. The PM2.5–0.1 samples collected at three contrasting sites in Cork demonstrated the ability to generate reactive oxygen species upon exposure irrespective of season. However, the magnitude of generation was somewhat higher for samples collected in the urban sites, compared to those generated by rural samples. Similarly, metals such as Cu and Mn were found to be present in larger quantities in the urban-based composite samples compared to those for their rural counterparts. The induction of interleukin 6 determined in this study followed a very similar seasonal trend to the measured concentrations of potassium ions in the PM2.5–0.1 samples to which the A549 cells were exposed. The current study provides further support that identifying important chemical components and their sources, with subsequent targeted emission controls, which will likely prove to be a more cost-effective strategy for mitigating toxicity and protecting human health, than current approaches which depend on uncharacterized total particle mass, especially when sophisticated pattern recognition techniques are employed to assess limited airborne datasets.
    Air Quality Atmosphere & Health 03/2012; 5(1). DOI:10.1007/s11869-010-0120-5 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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