To determine the effects of treatment with donepezil on cortical metabolism in patients with traumatic brain injury using F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.
Twenty-six patients with cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury were enrolled and randomly assigned into the donepezil-treated group and the control group. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in age, sex, education, and postinjury duration. Donepezil 5 mg was administered daily for 3 weeks and then 10 mg/d for 3 weeks to patients in the experimental groups. For both groups, we evaluated cognitive function with Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Memory Test, Boston Naming Test, Colored Progressive Matrices upon initial evaluation and at the 6-week follow-up. An 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain was performed before and after 6 weeks of the donepezil-treated group. Effects of donepezil treatment on cortical metabolism were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software (Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK).
There was no significance difference between the 2 groups in initial evaluation of cognitive functions. After 6 weeks, compared with the control group, donepezil-treated group showed enhanced cognitive functions (P < 0.05), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed a statistically significant increase in the cerebral cortical metabolism for both of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices (P < 0.01) which are the key role of attention and object naming.
Cholinergic augmentation by donepezil therapy in traumatic brain injury shows a cortical metabolic effect on the both of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices associated with clinical response to treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence with multiple possible neuropsychiatric sequelae, including problems with cognition, emotion, and behavior. While many individuals experience significant improvement over the first months following mild TBI, a nontrivial minority will develop persistent, functionally impairing post-TBI symptoms. Depression and cognitive impairment are among the most common such symptoms, and they may respond to a combination of rehabilitative and pharmacologic treatments. This article discusses the clinical approach to treating an individual with depression and cognitive complaints following mild TBI. Recommendations regarding the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of these problems are offered.
American Journal of Psychiatry 07/2009; 166(6):653-61. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08111676 · 12.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychiatrists are increasingly called upon to care for individuals with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral disturbances after TBI, especially in settings serving military service personnel and Veterans. In both the early and late post-injury periods, cognitive impairments contribute to disability among persons with TBI and are potentially substantial sources of suffering for persons with TBI and their families. In this article, the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of posttraumatic cognitive complaints is reviewed. The importance of pre-treatment evaluation as well as consideration of non-cognitive contributors to cognitive problems and functional limitations is emphasized first. The course of recovery after TBI, framed as a progression through posttraumatic encephalopathy, is reviewed next and used to anchor the evaluation and treatment of posttraumatic cognitive impairments in relation to injury severity as well as time post-injury. Finally, pharmacologic and rehabilitative interventions that may facilitate cognitive and functional recovery at each stage of posttraumatic encephalopathy are presented.
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