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Effects of perinatal PBDE exposure on hepatic phase I, phase II, phase III, and deiodinase 1 gene expression Involved in thyroid hormone metabolism in male rat pups

University of North Carolina Curriculum in Toxicology, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.48). 11/2008; 107(1):27-39. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn230
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ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that perinatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, may affect thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations by inducing hepatic uridinediphosphate-glucoronosyltransferases (UGTs). This study further examines effects of the commercial penta mixture, DE-71, on genes related to TH metabolism at different developmental time points in male rats. DE-71 is predominately composed of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 with low levels of brominated dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminants. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were orally administered 1.7 (low), 10.2 (mid), or 30.6 (high) mg/kg/day of DE-71 in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Serum and liver were collected from male pups at PND 4, 21, and 60. Total serum thyroxine (T(4)) decreased to 57% (mid) and 51% (high) on PND 4, and 46% (mid) dose and 25% (high) on PND 21. Cyp1a1, Cyp2b1/2, and Cyp3a1 enzyme and mRNA expression, regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and pregnane xenobiotic receptor, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. UGT-T(4) enzymatic activity significantly increased, whereas age and dose-dependent effects were observed for Ugt1a6, 1a7, and 2b mRNA. Sult1b1 mRNA expression increased, whereas that of transthyretin (Ttr) decreased as did both the deiodinase I (D1) enzyme activity and mRNA expression. Hepatic efflux transporters Mdr1 (multidrug resistance), Mrp2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein), and Mrp3 and influx transporter Oatp1a4 mRNA expression increased. In this study the most sensitive responses to PBDEs following DE-71 exposure were CYP2B and D1 activities and Cyb2b1/2, d1, Mdr1, Mrp2, and Mrp3 gene expression. All responses were reversible by PND 60. In conclusion, deiodination, active transport, and sulfation, in addition to glucuronidation, may be involved in disruption of TH homeostasis due to perinatal exposure to DE-71 in male rat offspring.

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    • "Many in vivo studies have also investigated the relationship of target chemicals with TH-DIO activity. Rat pups exhibit reduced DIO I activity when their mother is administered DE-71, a commercial PBDE mixture (Szabo et al., 2009). Aquatic exposure to DE-71 was reported to up-regulate DIO I gene expression in zebrafish embryos, accompanied with reduced T4 levels (Yu et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2-4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10−11 M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the test chemicals indicated TH circulation disruption. All four chemicals, especially BPA, were able to affect transcripts of phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes (UGT2A1, SULT1) in vitro. In conclusion, the zfTRβ reporter gene system developed here helps delineate an in vitro model to enable the analysis of the TH disruption effects of environmental pollutants in fish. BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways.
    Aquatic Toxicology 12/2014; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.12.011 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The potential mechanisms of PBDEs on cognitive function and hyperactivity have been postulated to include induced neuronal apoptosis, decreased neuronal migration, interrupted intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, and altered neurotransmitter release and function (Dingemans et al. 2011). PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) can bind to the serum binding proteins transthyretin and thyroxine binding globulin, affect deiodinase enzyme activity, and alter thyroid hormone metabolism and excretion, resulting in reduced T 4 levels in experimental animals (Butt et al. 2011; Marchesini et al. 2008; Meerts et al. 2000; Szabo et al. 2009; Zhou et al. 2002). Human studies also observed PBDE-associated thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free thyroxine, total and free triiodothyronine) disruption during pregnancy (Chevrier et al. 2010; Herbstman et al. 2008; Lin et al. 2011; Stapleton et al. 2011; Zota et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2014; 122(8). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307562 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    • "This suggests that BDE-209 dissolved in DMSO has a more pronounced effect than simply additive effects of BDE-209 and DMSO alone. Different solvents, for example , Tween 20 solution (Wang et al., 2011a), corn oil (Szabo et al., 2009), and ethanol (Ibhazehiebo et al., 2011), were used to dissolve PBDEs in studies of the effects on gene expression . This raises a caveat that one should set up an appropriate control to investigate the effect of a compound on gene expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame-retardant additives in consumer and household products and can escape into the environment over time. PBDEs have become a global environmental organic pollutant due to the properties of persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. The well-studied toxic effects of PBDEs mainly include thyroid hormone disruption and neurotoxicity. There is no consistent conclusions on the carcinogenic potential of PBDEs to date. Here, we explored the toxic effects of BDE-209 on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). The comparison of the gene expression profiles of HEK293T cells with BDE-209 treatment and the negative control found that BDE-209 exposure may alter nucleosome organization through significantly changing the expression of histone gene clusters. The remodeled chromatin structure could further disturb systemic lupus erythematosus as one of the toxic effects of BDE-209. Additionally, gene sets of different cancer modules are positively correlated with BDE-209 exposure. This suggests that BDE-209 has carcinogenic potential for a variety of tumors. Collectively, BDE-209 has a broader toxicity not limited to disruption of thyroid hormone-related biological processes. Notably, the toxic effects of BDE-209 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is not the simply additive effects of BDE-209 and DMSO alone.
    Frontiers in Genetics 05/2014; 5:118. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00118
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