Histopathological and biochemical changes following fat embolism with administration of corn oil micelles: a new animal model for fat embolism syndrome.
ABSTRACT Several experimental models have been used to produce intravascular fat embolism. We have developed a simple technique to induce fat embolism using corn oil emulsified with distilled water to form fatty micelles. Fat embolism was produced by intravenous administration of these fatty micelles in anaesthetised rats, causing alveolar oedema, haemorrhage and increased lung weight. Histopathological examination revealed fatty droplets and fibrin thrombi in the lung, kidney and brain. The arteriolar lumen was filled with fatty deposits. Following fat embolism, hypoxia and hypercapnia occurred. The plasma phospholipase A(2), nitrate/nitrite, methylguidanidine and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased. Mass spectrometry showed that the main ingredient of corn oil was oleic acid. This simple technique may be applied as a new animal model for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in the fat embolism syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to develop an animal model of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) caused by femoral intramedullary procedures, and to investigate the initial changes in the hemodynamics, cytokines and risk factors of PFE. Sixteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (intramedullary reaming and bone cement injection, n=8) and Group B (surgical approach without opening the medullary cavity, n=8). The hemodynamics, arterial blood gases and relevant cytokines were evaluated, and the lungs were examined using Oil Red O staining. In the animals of Group A, the heart rate, central venous pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and extravascular lung water (EVLW) were increased compared with the baseline levels, while the mean arterial pressure was decreased immediately following the reaming and bone cement infusion (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the pH and the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), and a significant increase in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2; P<0.05 for all) following the bilateral intramedullary surgery. The EVLW was correlated with the PaO2 (P<0.001) and PaCO2 (P=0.046). Following surgery, there was a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels in Group A (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in these parameters in Group B. The parameters tested, with the exception of pH, were significantly different in Group A compared with those in Group B (P<0.05) following the bilateral intramedullary surgery. Oil Red O staining was positive for all animals in Group A and negative for those in Group B. Femoral intramedullary surgery may induce PFE and subsequently affect hemodynamics and arterial blood gases. EVLW was correlated with the PaO2 (P<0.001) and the PaCO2 (P=0.046). These results demonstrated that EVLW and cytokines may serve as predictors of the development of fat embolism syndrome (FES).Experimental and therapeutic medicine 08/2013; 6(2):469-474. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, extensive embolization was associated pulmonary damage consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an infrequent clinical outcome of FE and is triggered by systemic biochemical and mechanical responses to fat in circulation. Although clinical criteria diagnostic of FES were not investigated at the time of death, this severe case may represent the fulminant form of FES, which occurs within 12 h after trauma. Bone marrow biopsy as an etiology of FES has been reported only once in humans. In addition, the association of embolization with bone marrow biopsies suggests that nonhuman primates may be a useful animal model of FE. FE and FES represent important research confounders and FES should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical complications subsequent to skeletal trauma.Comparative medicine 01/2011; 61(1):86-91. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fat embolism (FE) after trauma and some orthopedic procedures is known to cause acute lung injury, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, its potential long-term effects on the lung are unknown. A previous study using a rat model of FE found significant histopathologic changes in the lungs after intravenous injection of triolein for up to 11 days. This study detailed the persistence of the lung damage and investigated the input of the renin-angiotensin system in its pathology. Unanesthetized rats were injected via the tail vein with 0.2 mL saline or triolein. After euthanasia, at 3 weeks or 6 weeks, lung sections were stained to highlight cellular structure, presence of collagen and fat, or immunolabeled for smooth muscle actin or angiotensin peptides. At 3 weeks or 6 weeks after triolein injection, there was no dilatation of the heart or inferior vena cava, no congestion of the liver or spleen, no adventitial edema, nor was fluid present in alveoli or pleural cavity as reported in animals at earlier time points. Persisting pathology included reduced lumen patency, thickening of the media of small arteries and arterioles, and vascular and septal inflammation. Although the fat content of the lung decreased from week 3 to week 6, there was a progressive increase in collagen, smooth muscle actin, and angiotensin peptides. This model extends the effect of FE on pulmonary pathology to 6 weeks, revealing persistent vasculitis, septal inflammation, and progressive fibrotic changes which are associated with increased presence of angiotensin peptides.The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 04/2012; 72(4):992-8.