Postprandial improvement of endothelial function by red wine and olive oil antioxidants: a synergistic effect of components of the Mediterranean diet.
ABSTRACT Consumption of olive oil may cause postprandial impairment of endothelial function, while acute ingestion of red wine seems to improve it. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined postprandial effects of two essential components of the Mediterranean diet, red wine and olive oil, on endothelial function.
Fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, which was comprised of 4 study days. Subjects were asked to consume a standard meal at each study day containing 50 gr of olive oil and 250 ml of wine. Two types of wine (red and white; rich and poor in antioxidants respectively) and two types of olive oil (green and refined; rich and poor in antioxidants respectively) were used in a 2*2 design. Endothelium dependent, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured with a B-Mode ultrasound device at fast and 1, 2 and 3 hours postprandially.
Combined consumption of red wine and green olive oil (both rich in antioxidants) improved FMD postprandially (p = 0.002, ANOVA for repeated measures), which remained significant 1 hour (p = 0.002) and 2 hours (0.037) following the meal compared to fasting levels. No other combination of wine and olive oil caused any significant alteration on FMD.
Acute consumption of both red wine and green olive oil, rich in antioxidants, led to an improvement in the postprandial endothelial function in healthy subjects. These findings provide an additional favorable effect of components of the Mediterranean diet and of their antioxidant substances on endothelial function, at the postprandial state.
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions.Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 08/2014; DOI:10.1080/10408398.2012.726660 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate factors associated with arterial blood pressure in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005 to 2011, 2813 older (aged 65–100 years) individuals from 22 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial BP and pulse pressure and for the evaluation of dietary habits (including tea and alcoholic beverages consumption), lifestyle, and anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. Participants who reported low alcohol consumption (ie, 0–1 glasses per day) were less likely to have hypertension (odds ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.14–0.84) as compared with those who reported high alcohol consumption (ie, 5+ glasses per day). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with mean arterial pressure (β coefficient, −0.18; 95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.16). Alcohol drinking remains an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with decreased arterial peripheral resistance.Journal of Clinical Hypertension 07/2014; 16(9). DOI:10.1111/jch.12370 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVESThe traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet.MATERIALS/METHODSUsing data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 75 individual plant food items were selected which represent over 1% of the total diet intake of the Korean diet. These items were classified into ten different food groups, and the vegetable (Veg) and fruit (Fruit) groups were studied based on their high antioxidant capacity. For comparison, a mixture of all ten groups (Mix) was prepared. To produce a model of inflammation with which to test these Veg, Fruit, and Mix plant-based Korean food extracts (PKE), RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).RESULTSLevels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be lower following PKE treatment. Furthermore, PKE treatment was found to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Overall, the Mix group exhibited the greatest anti-inflammatory effects compared with Veg and Fruit PKE group.CONCLUSIONSInhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by the PKE tested was found to involve an inhibition of NF-kB activation. Moreover, PKE tested have the potential to ameliorate various inflammation-related diseases by limiting the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators.Nutrition research and practice 06/2014; 8(3):249-56. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2014.8.3.249 · 1.13 Impact Factor