Expression and Physiological Relevance of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Genes

Microbial Biology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2008; 191(1):365-74. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01183-08
Source: PubMed


Phosphatidylcholine (PC), or lecithin, is the major phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes, whereas only 10% of all bacteria are predicted to synthesize PC. In Rhizobiaceae, including the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, PC is essential for the establishment of a successful host-microbe interaction. A. tumefaciens produces PC via two alternative pathways, the methylation pathway and the Pcs pathway. The responsible genes, pmtA (coding for a phospholipid N-methyltransferase) and pcs (coding for a PC synthase), are located on the circular chromosome of A. tumefaciens C58. Recombinant expression of pmtA and pcs in Escherichia coli revealed that the individual proteins carry out the annotated enzyme functions. Both genes and a putative ABC transporter operon downstream of PC are constitutively expressed in A. tumefaciens. The amount of PC in A. tumefaciens membranes reaches around 23% of total membrane lipids. We show that PC is distributed in both the inner and outer membranes. Loss of PC results in reduced motility and increased biofilm formation, two processes known to be involved in virulence. Our work documents the critical importance of membrane lipid homeostasis for diverse cellular processes in A. tumefaciens.

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    • "The pcs gene of OV14 shares 92% and 85% protein sequence identity with 1021 and C58 respectively, while the pmtA gene of OV14 shares 83% and 67% protein sequence identity with 1021’s and C58’s respecitvely. The pcs pathway is dependent on the uptake of choline from the environment [55]. Screening OV14 for the choline ABC transporter genes choXWV (that have been identified in both C58 and 1021), revealed that the choX solute binding protein component (aproNOG00993) was represented by two orthologs in all three species (Table 3). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently it has been shown that Ensifer adhaerens can be used as a plant transformation technology, transferring genes into several plant genomes when equipped with a Ti plasmid. For this study, we have sequenced the genome of Ensifer adhaerens OV14 (OV14) and compared it with those of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (C58) and Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 (1021); the latter of which has also demonstrated a capacity to genetically transform crop genomes, albeit at significantly reduced frequencies. The 7.7 Mb OV14 genome comprises two chromosomes and two plasmids. All protein coding regions in the OV14 genome were functionally grouped based on an eggNOG database. No genes homologous to the A. tumefaciens Ti plasmid vir genes appeared to be present in the OV14 genome. Unexpectedly, OV14 and 1021 were found to possess homologs to chromosomal based genes cited as essential to A. tumefaciens T-DNA transfer. Of significance, genes that are non-essential but exert a positive influence on virulence and the ability to genetically transform host genomes were identified in OV14 but were absent from the 1021 genome. This study reveals the presence of homologs to chromosomally based Agrobacterium genes that support T-DNA transfer within the genome of OV14 and other alphaproteobacteria. The sequencing and analysis of the OV14 genome increases our understanding of T-DNA transfer by non-Agrobacterium species and creates a platform for the continued improvement of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT).
    BMC Genomics 04/2014; 15(1):268. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-268 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The second PC synthesis pathway in A. tumefaciens is catalyzed by the Pcs enzyme (Figure 4). Like pmtA, the pcs gene (atu1793) is located on the circular chromosome and is constitutively expressed (Wessel et al., 2006; Klüsener et al., 2009; Wilms et al., 2012). Pcs uses exogenous choline, which is transported via the high-affinity choline transport system ChoXWV. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many cellular processes critically depend on the membrane composition. In this review, we focus on the biosynthesis and physiological roles of membrane lipids in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The major components of A. tumefaciens membranes are the phospholipids (PLs), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin, and ornithine lipids (OLs). Under phosphate-limited conditions, the membrane composition shifts to phosphate-free lipids like glycolipids, OLs and a betaine lipid. Remarkably, PC and OLs have opposing effects on virulence of A. tumefaciens. OL-lacking A. tumefaciens mutants form tumors on the host plant earlier than the wild type suggesting a reduced host defense response in the absence of OLs. In contrast, A. tumefaciens is compromised in tumor formation in the absence of PC. In general, PC is a rare component of bacterial membranes but amount to ~22% of all PLs in A. tumefaciens. PC biosynthesis occurs via two pathways. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA methylates PE via the intermediates monomethyl-PE and dimethyl-PE to PC. In the second pathway, the membrane-integral enzyme PC synthase (Pcs) condenses choline with CDP-diacylglycerol to PC. Apart from the virulence defect, PC-deficient A. tumefaciens pmtA and pcs double mutants show reduced motility, enhanced biofilm formation and increased sensitivity towards detergent and thermal stress. In summary, there is cumulative evidence that the membrane lipid composition of A. tumefaciens is critical for agrobacterial physiology and tumor formation.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 03/2014; 5:109. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2014.00109 · 3.95 Impact Factor
    • "Mutants of L. pneumophila lacking PC are unable to transit to a motile state and have low levels of flagellin protein (Conover et al., 2008). Also in A. tumefaciens, the loss of PC resulted in reduced motility (Klüsener et al., 2009). pmtA-deficient mutant showed increased biofilm formation and higher aggregation capacity than the wild strain (unpublished results) The PC level encountered in DBM13 (Table 2) was sufficient to develop functional nitrogen-fixing nodules. "
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    ABSTRACT: Legumes are able to fix nitrogen because of the bacterial symbionts (rhizobia) that inhabit nodules on their roots. The amount of ammonia produced by rhizobial fixation of nitrogen rivals that of the world's entire fertilizer industry. Consequently, this symbiotic relationship between legumes and rhizobia is of great agronomic and ecological importance. Typical environmental stresses faced by the legume and their symbiotic partner may include, water stress, salinity and temperature and influence the survival in the soil. In the Rhizobia-legume symbiosis, the host plant also influence rhizobial survival. In Arachis hypogaea rhizobia symbiosis is known that different abiotic stresses affect the viability, trehalose and membrane components content of rhizobia. Also, the attachment ability of peanut rhizobia is affected under abiotic stresses. This chapter addresses the idea that the rhizobia and the plants must be able to adapt to survive to the environmental conditions. Our hypothesis is that rhizobia survival in the soilenvironmental because they are able to modify fatty acid and phospholipid components of their membranes, as well as other molecules with important roles in stress tolerance.
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