A week-by-week analysis of the low-risk criteria for serious bacterial infection in febrile neonates
ABSTRACT To examine the reliability of "low-risk" criteria (LRC) to exclude serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile neonates (< or =28 days), according to age in weeks.
Epidemiological and clinical data and final diagnosis of all febrile neonates presenting to the emergency room from June 1997 to May 2006 were reviewed. Neonates who fulfilled specific LRC for the presence of SBI were classified as LRC+. The prevalence of SBI and the percentage of LRC+ neonates who had SBI were calculated for each of the first 4 weeks of life.
A total of 449 neonates were evaluated. Eighty-seven (19.4%) neonates had an SBI. The prevalence of SBI among infants 3-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 22-28 days of age was 21.6%, 26.1%, 17.9% and 12.1%, respectively (p = 0.007 for linear trend after second week of life). Of the 226 LRC+ neonates, 14 (6.2%) had an SBI, including one case of bacteraemia and meningitis and 13 cases of urinary tract infection (UTI). The negative predictive value (NPV) of the LRC for SBI was 93.8% (95% CI 90.1% to 96.4%). The prevalence of SBI among LRC+ infants 3-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 22-28 days of age was similar, with rates of 15%, 6.3%, 3.0% and 6.7%, respectively.
LRC are not sufficiently reliable to exclude the presence of SBI, including bacteraemia and meningitis in febrile neonates of all ages. All febrile neonates should therefore be hospitalised, undergo a full "sepsis evaluation" and receive empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the common practices for evaluating and treating febrile infants aged ≤60 days in a nationwide survey. Questionnaires were administrated to inpatient paediatric departments in all 25 hospitals in Israel. Of the 25 centres surveyed (100% response rate), only 36% had written protocols concerning the approach to young febrile infants. The existence of a written protocol was significantly associated with the level of medical centre (tertiary versus primary and secondary, p=0.041) and with the number of local paediatric infectious disease specialists (p=0.034). In 13 (52%) hospitals, a normal white blood cell count was defined as 5000-15000 cells/ml and 20 (80%) centres use C-reactive protein. Hospitalisation was mandatory in most (96%) centres for all neonates aged ≤28 days. Low-risk infants aged 29 to 60 days were hospitalised in 68.4% of the primary and secondary hospitals, compared with 33.3% tertiary centres. Ampicillin and gentamicin was the routine empiric antibiotic treatment for febrile infant in 92% of centres. Significant differences exist among centres in the evaluation of febrile infants aged ≤60 days exist. These differences reflect the lack of, and highlight the need for, national or international guidelines for the evaluation of fever in this age group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Acta Paediatrica 01/2014; 103(4). DOI:10.1111/apa.12560 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Variation in patient care or outcomes may indicate an opportunity to improve quality of care. We evaluated the variation in testing, treatment, hospitalization rates, and outcomes of febrile young infants in US pediatric emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of infants,90 days of age with a diagnosis code of fever who were evaluated in 1 of 37 pediatric EDs between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2013. We assessed patient-and hospital-level variation in testing, treatment, and disposition for patients in 3 distinct age groups: <= 28, 29 to 56, and 57 to 89 days. We also compared interhospital variation for 3-day revisits and revisits resulting in hospitalization. RESULTS: We identified 35 070 ED visits that met inclusion criteria. The proportion of patients who underwent comprehensive evaluation, defined as urine, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid testing, decreased with increasing patient age: 72.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.0-73.0) of neonates <= 28 days, 49.0% (95% CI, 48.2-49.8) of infants 29 to 56 days, and 13.1% (95% CI, 12.5-13.6) of infants 57 to 89 days. Significant interhospital variation was demonstrated in testing, treatment, and hospitalization rates overall and across all 3 age groups, with little interhospital variation in outcomes. Hospitalization rate in the overall cohort did not correlate with 3-day revisits (R-2 = 0.10, P = .06) or revisits resulting in hospitalization (R-2 = 0.08, P = .09). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial patient-and hospital-level variation was observed in the ED management of the febrile young infant, without concomitant differences in outcomes. Strategies to understand and address the modifiable sources of variation are needed.2014 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; 10/2014
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ABSTRACT: Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures and admission for antibiotics are considered standard management of febrile neonates (0-28 days). We examined variation in adherence to these recommendations across US pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) and incidence of serious infections (SIs) in febrile neonates. Cross-sectional study of neonates with a diagnosis of fever evaluated in 36 PEDs in the 2010 Pediatric Health Information System database. We analyzed performance of recommended management (laboratory testing, antibiotic use, admission to hospital), 48-hour return visits to PED, and diagnoses of SI. Of 2253 neonates meeting study criteria, 369 (16.4%) were evaluated and discharged from the PED; 1884 (83.6%) were admitted. Recommended management occurred in 1497 of 2253 (66.4%; 95% confidence interval, 64.5-68.4) febrile neonates. There was more than twofold variation across the 36 PEDs in adherence to recommended management, recommended testing, and recommended treatment of febrile neonates. There was significant variation in testing and treatment between admitted and discharged neonates (P < .001). A total of 269 in 2253 (11.9%) neonates had SI, of whom 223 (82.9%; 95% confidence interval, 77.9-86.9) received recommended management. There was wide variation across US PEDs in adherence to recommended management of febrile neonates. One in 6 febrile neonates was discharged from the PED; discharged patients were less likely to receive testing or antibiotic therapy than admitted patients. A majority of neonates with SI received recommended evaluation and management. High rates of SI in admitted patients but low return rates for missed infections in discharged patients suggest a need for additional studies to understand variation from the current recommendations.PEDIATRICS 01/2014; 133(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1820 · 5.30 Impact Factor