Relationship of bispectral index to hemodynamic variables and alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in puppies.
ABSTRACT The relationships between bispectral index (BIS), cardiovascular variables and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in puppies were determined. Five puppies were anesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions. First, the individual sevoflurane MAC values were determined for each puppy. Secondly, dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC administered in random order. Hemodynamic parameters and BIS data were collected for 20min. Somatic stimulus was then applied and the same parameters and data were collected for 6min. Correlation between BIS and end tidal sevoflurane and between BIS and hemodynamic parameters were studied. We found positive significant correlation in both cases. BIS is lower in puppies that in adults at the same alveolar anesthetic concentrations and sevoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in puppies.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate hemodynamic and clinical responses to induction of anesthesia and intubation at 3 different values of the electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS). Prospective randomized trial. University-affiliated hospital. Forty-five patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15 for each group). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam, sufentanil, and pancuronium. In each group, sufentanil was titrated to a BIS value of 60, 50, or 40 before intubation. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, incidence of coughing, tearing, and need for fluid replacement or injections of norepinephrine were recorded before intubation as well as immediately and 1 and 2 minutes after intubation. Thirteen patients intubated at a BIS value of 60 coughed and 14 experienced tearing after intubation, whereas no patient of the other groups showed signs of arousal. Mean arterial blood pressure remained stable in the BIS 60 and 50 groups, whereas in the BIS 40 group it decreased significantly to lower values before and after intubation. Patients in the BIS 40 group needed significantly more fluid replacement and injections of norepinephrine compared with the other groups. No significant changes in heart rate were detected. Electroencephalogram BIS predicts hemodynamic and arousal reaction resulting from induction of anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. BIS value should be kept at 50 before intubation to ensure safe hemodynamic conditions during induction of anesthesia in cardiac surgical patients.Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 01/2001; 14(6):693-7. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electromyographic activity has previously been reported to elevate the Bispectral Index (BIS) in patients not receiving neuromuscular blockade while under sedation in the intensive care unit. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of the decrease of BIS following administration of muscle relaxant in sedated intensive care unit patients. The authors prospectively investigated 45 patients who were continuously sedated with midazolam and sufentanil to achieve a Sedation-Agitation Scale value equal to 1 and who required administration of muscle relaxant. BIS (BIS version 2.10), electromyography, and acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle were recorded simultaneously before and after neuromuscular blockade. Sixteen of these 45 patients were also studied simultaneously with the new BIS XP. After administration of a muscle relaxant, BIS (67 +/- 19 vs. 43 +/- 10, P < 0.001) and electromyographic activity (37 +/- 9 vs. 27 +/- 3 dB, P < 0.001) significantly decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that the decrease of BIS following administration of myorelaxant was significantly correlated to BIS and electromyographic baseline values. Using standard BIS range guidelines, the number of patients under light or deep sedation versus general anesthesia or deep hypnotic state was markedly overestimated before administration of myorelaxant (53 vs. 2%, P < 0.001). The BIS in sedated intensive care unit patients may be lower with paralysis for an equivalent degree of sedation because of high muscular activity. The magnitude of BIS overestimation is significantly correlated to both BIS and electromyographic activity before neuromuscular blockade. The authors conclude that clinicians who determine the amount of sedation in intensive care unit patients only from BIS monitoring may expose them to unnecessary oversedation.Anesthesiology 07/2003; 99(1):9-17. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of much effort in recent years has been to provide a simplified interpretation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) for a variety of applications, including the diagnosis of neurological disorders and the intraoperative monitoring of anesthetic efficacy and cerebral ischemia. Although processed EEG variables have enjoyed limited success for specific applications, few acceptable standards have emerged. In part, this may be attributed to the fact that commonly usedsignal processing tools do not quantify all of the information available in the EEG. Power spectral analysis, for example, quantifies only power distribution as a function offrequency, ignoring phase information. It also makes the assumption that thesignal arises from alinear process, thereby ignoring potential interaction betweencomponents of the signal that are manifested asphase coupling, a common phenomenon in signals generated fromnonlinear sources such as the central nervous system (CNS). This tutorial describes bispectral analysis, a method of signal processing that quantifies the degree of phase coupling between the components of a signal such as the EEG. The basic theory underlying bispectral analysis is explained in detail, and information obtained from bispectral analysis is compared with that available from thepower spectrum. The concept of abispectral index is introduced. Finally, several model signals, as well as a representative clinical case, are analyzed using bispectral analysis, and the results are interpreted.Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 01/1994; 10(6):392-404. · 0.71 Impact Factor