Effects of Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol and Placebo in Reducing Serum Urate in Subjects With Hyperuricemia and Gout: A 28-Week, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

University of Pennsylvania and VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 11/2008; 59(11):1540-8. DOI: 10.1002/art.24209
Source: PubMed


To compare the urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat, allopurinol, and placebo in a large group of subjects with hyperuricemia and gout, including persons with impaired renal function.
Subjects (n = 1,072) with hyperuricemia (serum urate level > or = 8.0 mg/dl) and gout with normal or impaired (serum creatinine level >1.5 to < or = 2.0 mg/dl) renal function were randomized to receive once-daily febuxostat (80 mg, 120 mg, or 240 mg), allopurinol (300 or 100 mg, based on renal function), or placebo for 28 weeks.
Significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher percentages of subjects treated with febuxostat 80 mg (48%), 120 mg (65%), and 240 mg (69%) attained the primary end point of last 3 monthly serum urate levels <6.0 mg/dl compared with allopurinol (22%) and placebo (0%). A significantly (P < 0.05) higher percentage of subjects with impaired renal function treated with febuxostat 80 mg (4 [44%] of 9), 120 mg (5 [45%] of 11), and 240 mg (3 [60%] of 5) achieved the primary end point compared with those treated with 100 mg of allopurinol (0 [0%] of 10). Proportions of subjects experiencing any adverse event or serious adverse event were similar across groups, although diarrhea and dizziness were more frequent in the febuxostat 240 mg group. The primary reasons for withdrawal were similar across groups except for gout flares, which were more frequent with febuxostat than with allopurinol.
At all doses studied, febuxostat more effectively lowered and maintained serum urate levels <6.0 mg/dl than did allopurinol (300 or 100 mg) or placebo in subjects with hyperuricemia and gout, including those with mild to moderately impaired renal function.

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    • "A 6-month, large-scale, RCT of febuxostat 40/80 mg or allopurinol 300 mg (200 mg in moderate renal impairment) was conducted in 2,269 patients with gout and SUA ≥8.0 mg/dL [48]; the study indicated (1) the equivalent UL efficacy and comparable safety for febuxostat 40 mg daily and allopurinol 300/200 mg daily, (2) the significantly greater efficacy of febuxostat 40 mg daily in lowering SUA than allopurinol in patients with mildly or moderately impaired renal function, (3) comparable safety at the doses examined, and (4) the favorable tolerability of febuxostat 40 mg daily, especially for gout patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The large-scale RCTs of febuxostat conducted to date [45,46,48] reported treatment-related AEs, the majority of which were mild to moderate in severity (e.g., liver function test abnormalities, diarrhea, nausea, headache, joint-related signs and symptoms, and rashes); the major serious AEs were non-specific bacterial infections, coronary artery disease, ischemic coronary artery disorders, and so on. Hence, there is a battery of experimental and clinical evidence to design an RCT in hyperuricemic patients with moderate renal impairment (30–59 mL/min/1.73 "
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is significantly associated with the progression of CKD. However, there is no sufficient evidence by interventional research supporting a cause-effect relationship. Hyperuricemic patients without gouty arthritis, whose serum urate (SUA) concentration is >=8.0 mg/dL and who have a complication, are treated by pharmacotherapy in addition to lifestyle guidance. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that rationalizes pharmacotherapy for patients with hyperuricemia who have no complication and whose SUA concentration is below 9.0 mg/dL. The FEATHER (FEbuxostat versus placebo rAndomized controlled Trial regarding reduced renal function in patients with Hyperuricemia complicated by chRonic kidney disease stage 3) study is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of febuxostat--a novel, nonpurine, selective, xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The present study will enroll, at 67 medical institutions in Japan, 400 Japanese patients aged 20 years or older who have hyperuricemia without gouty arthritis, who present CKD stage 3, and whose SUA concentration is 7.1-10.0 mg/dL. Patients are randomly assigned to either the febuxostat or the control group, in which febuxostat tablets and placebo are administered orally, respectively. The dosage of the study drugs should be one 10-mg tablet/day at weeks 1 to 4 after study initiation, increased to one 20-mg tablet/day at weeks 5 to 8, and elevated to one 40-mg tablet/day at week 9 and then maintained until week 108. The primary endpoint is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. The secondary endpoints include the amount and percent rate of change in eGFR from baseline to week 108, the amount and percent rate of change in SUA concentration from baseline to week 108, the proportion of patients who achieved an SUA concentration <=6.0 mg/dL, and the incidence of renal function deterioration. The present study aims to examine whether febuxostat prevents a further reduction in renal function as assessed with eGFR in subjects and will (1) provide evidence to indicate the inverse association between a reduction in SUA concentration and an improvement in renal function and (2) rationalize pharmacotherapy for subjects and clarify its clinical relevance.Trial registration: UMIN Identifier: UMIN000008343.
    Trials 01/2014; 15(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-26 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Overall, AEs were similar across all treatment groups in these studies [28–30]. In APEX, febuxostat at 240 mg/day was associated with high levels of diarrhea and dizziness, and the incidence of hypertension was also higher in the febuxostat 80-mg/day arm [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gouty arthritis is an inflammatory condition associated with debilitating clinical symptoms, functional impairments, and a substantial impact on quality of life. This condition is initially triggered by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals into the joint space. This causes an inflammatory cascade resulting in the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment into the joint. While generally effective, currently available agents are associated with a number of adverse events and contraindications that complicate their use. Based on our increased understanding of the inflammatory pathogenesis of gouty arthritis, several new agents are under development that may provide increased efficacy and reduced toxicity.
    Clinical Rheumatology 11/2011; 31(1):13-21. DOI:10.1007/s10067-011-1877-0 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    • "In small studies of gout patients, the mean daily dose of allopurinol needed to normalize serum urate was 372 mg [36], and allopurinol dose increases from 300 mg to 600 mg daily markedly increased serum urate-lowering efficiency in patients without stage 3 or worse CKD [37]. Data from recent, large, randomized, controlled clinical trials indicated that allopurinol 300 mg daily lowered serum urate by approximately 33% in a population of gout patients where approximately 25 to 30% had detectable tophi, serum urate was approximately 9.5 to 10 mg/dL, and renal function was largely intact [38,39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few decades, gout has increased not only in prevalence, but also in clinical complexity, the latter accentuated in part by a dearth of novel advances in treatments for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. Fortunately, recent research reviewed here, much of it founded on elegant translational studies of the past decade, highlights how gout can be better managed with cost-effective, well-established therapies. In addition, the advent of both new urate-lowering and anti-inflammatory drugs, also reviewed here, promises for improved management of refractory gout, including in subjects with co-morbidities such as chronic kidney disease. Effectively delivering improved management of hyperuricemia and gout will require a frame shift in practice patterns, including increased recognition of the implications of refractory disease and frequent noncompliance of patients with gout, and understanding the evidence basis for therapeutic targets in serum urate-lowering and gouty inflammation.
    Arthritis research & therapy 08/2009; 11(4):236. DOI:10.1186/ar2738 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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