Ecology. Physiology and climate change.

Animal Ecophysiology, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27515 Bremerhaven, Germany.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 11/2008; 322(5902):690-2. DOI: 10.1126/science.1163156
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Reproduction in many organisms can be disrupted by changes to the physical environment, such as those predicted to occur during climate change. Marine organisms face the dual climate change threats of increasing temperature and ocean acidification, yet no studies have examined the potential interactive effects of these stressors on reproduction in marine fishes. We used a long-term experiment to test the interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the reproductive performance of the anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus. Adult breeding pairs were kept for 10 months at three temperatures (28.5°C [+0.0°C], 30.0°C [+1.5°C] and 31.5°C [+3.0°C]) cross-factored with three CO2 levels (a current-day control [417 μatm] and moderate [644 μatm] and high [1134 μatm]) treatments consistent with the range of CO2 projections for the year 2100. We recorded each egg clutch produced during the breeding season, the number of eggs laid per clutch, average egg size, fertilization success, survival to hatching, hatchling length, and yolk provisioning. Adult body condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured at the end of the breeding season to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to increased temperature and elevated CO2 on adults, and to examine potential physiological mechanisms for changes in reproduction. Temperature had by far the stronger influence on reproduction, with clear declines in reproduction occurring in the +1.5°C treatment and ceasing altogether in the +3.0°C treatment. In contrast, CO2 had a minimal effect on the majority of reproductive traits measured, but caused a decline in offspring quality in combination with elevated temperature. We detected no significant effect of temperature or CO2 on adult body condition or hepatosomatic index. Elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations, suggesting that declines in reproduction with increasing temperature were due to the thermal sensitivity of reproductive hormones rather than a reduction in energy available for reproduction. Our results show that elevated temperature exerts a stronger influence than high CO2 on reproduction in A. melanopus. Understanding how these two environmental variables interact to affect the reproductive performance of marine organisms will be important for predicting the future impacts of climate change.
    Ecological Applications 04/2015; 25(3):603-620. DOI:10.1890/14-0559.1 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental temperature has serious implications in life cycle of aquatic ectotherms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of temperature acclimation and adaptation of marine organisms is of the uttermost importance for ecology, fisheries, and aquaculture, as it allows modeling the effects of global warming on population dynamics. Regulatory molecules are major modulators of acclimation and adaptation; among them, microRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile and substantial contributors to regulatory networks of development and adaptive plasticity. However, their role in thermal plasticity is poorly known. We have asked whether the temperature and its shift during the early ontogeny (embryonic and larval development) affect the miRNA repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and if thermal experience has long-term consequences in the miRNA profile. We characterized miRNA during different developmental stages and in juvenile tissues using next generation sequencing. We identified 389 putative miRNA precursor loci, 120 novel precursor miRNAs, and 281 mature miRNAs. Some miRNAs showed stage- or tissue-enriched expression and miRNAs, such as the miR-17 ~ 92 cluster, myomiRs (miR-206), neuromiRs (miR-9, miR-124), miR-130b, and miR-430 showed differential expression in different temperature regimes. Long-term effect of embryonic incubation temperature was revealed on expression of some miRNAs in juvenile pituitary (miR-449), gonad (miR-27c, miR-30c, and miR-200a), and liver (let-7 h, miR-7a, miR-22, miR-34c, miR-132a, miR-192, miR-221, miR-451, miR-2188, and miR-7550), but not in brain. Some of differentially expressed miRNAs in the liver were confirmed using LNA-based rt-qPCR. The effect of temperature on methylation status of selected miRNA promoter regions was mostly inconclusive. Temperature elevation by several degrees during embryonic and larval developmental stages significantly alters the miRNA profile, both short-term and long-term. Our results suggest that a further rise in seas temperature might affect life history of Atlantic cod.
    BMC Genomics 04/2015; 16(1):305. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1503-7 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043–2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964–1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2015.03.012 · 1.77 Impact Factor


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Mar 5, 2015