Macrophage-Derived SPARC Bridges Tumor Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions toward Metastasis

Department of Experimental Oncology, Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy Unit, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 12/2008; 68(21):9050-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1327
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Other than genetic imprinting and epithelial to mesenchymal transition, cancer cells need interaction with the nearby stroma toward metastasis. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein known to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and cell-ECM interaction. Gene expression profiles associate SPARC to malignant progression. Using reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between SPARC knockout and wild-type mice, we show that SPARC produced by inflammatory cells is necessary for spontaneous, but not experimental, i.v. metastasis. Macrophage-derived SPARC induces cancer cell migration and enhances their migration to other ECM proteins at least through alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. Indeed, RNA interference knockdown of beta(5) integrin expression reduces cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Together these results show that macrophage-derived SPARC takes part in metastasis, acting at the step of integrin-mediated migration of invasive cells.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metastatic disease is the major cause of death from cancer, and immunotherapy and chemotherapy have had limited success in reversing its progression. Data from mouse models suggest that the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells to tumours protects metastatic cancer cells from surveillance by killer cells, which nullifies the effects of immunotherapy and thus establishes metastasis. Furthermore, in most cases, tumour-infiltrating immune cells differentiate into cells that promote each step of the metastatic cascade and thus are novel targets for therapy. In this Review, we describe how tumour-infiltrating immune cells contribute to the metastatic cascade and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies to target these cells.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 01/2015; 15(2):73-86. DOI:10.1038/nri3789 · 33.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms allowing West Nile virus (WNV) to replicate in a large variety of different arthropod, bird and mammal species are largely unknown but are believed to rely on highly conserved proteins relevant for viral entry and replication. Consistent with this, the integrin αvβ3 has been proposed lately to function as the cellular receptor for WNV. More recently published data, however, are not in line with this concept. Integrins are highly conserved among diverse taxa and are expressed by almost every cell type at high numbers. Our study was designed to clarify the involvement of integrins in WNV infection of cells. A cell culture model, based on wild-type and specific integrin knock-out cell lines lacking the integrin subunits αv, β1 or β3, was used to investigate the susceptibility to WNV, and to evaluate binding and replication efficiencies of four distinct strains (New York 1999, Uganda 1937, Sarafend and Dakar). Though all cell lines were permissive, clear differences in replication efficiencies were observed. Rescue of the β3-integrin subunit resulted in enhanced WNV yields of up to 90 % regardless the virus strain used. Similar results were obtained for β1-expressing and non-expressing cells. Binding, however, was not affected by the expression of the integrins in question, and integrin blocking antibodies failed to have any effect. We conclude that integrins are involved in WNV infection but not at the level of binding to target cells.
    Journal of General Virology 05/2013; 94(Pt 8). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.052613-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suppressive immune cells present in tumour microenvironments are known to augment tumour growth and hamper efficacy of antitumour therapies. The amino-bisphosphonate Zoledronic acid (ZA) is considered as an antitumour agent, as recent studies showed that ZA prolongs disease-free survival in cancer patients. The exact mechanism is a topic of debate; it has been suggested that ZA targets tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). We investigate the role of ZA on the myeloid differentiation to TAMs in murine mesothelioma in vivo and in vitro. Mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with a lethal dose of mesothelioma tumour cells and treated with ZA to determine the effects on myeloid differentiation and survival. We show that ZA impaired myeloid differentiation. Inhibition of myeloid differentiation led to a reduction in TAMs, but the number of immature myeloid cells with myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) characteristics was increased. In addition, ZA affects the phenotype of macrophages leading to reduced level of TAM-associated cytokines in the tumour microenvironment. No improvement of survival was observed. We conclude that ZA leads to a reduction in macrophages and impairs polarisation towards an M2 phenotype, but this was associated with an increase in the number of immature myeloid cells, which might diminish the effects of ZA on survival.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2010; 103(5):629-41. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605814 · 4.82 Impact Factor