Article

Matrix metalloproteinases: Their potential role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy

Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA.
Endocrine (Impact Factor: 3.53). 11/2008; 35(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1007/s12020-008-9114-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of proteinases including collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, and membrane-type MMPs, affect the breakdown and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM). Moreover, they are major physiologic determinants of ECM degradation and turnover in the glomerulus. Renal hypertrophy and abnormal ECM deposition are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN), suggesting that altered MMP expression or activation contributes to renal injury in DN. Herein, we review and summarize recent information supporting a role for MMPs in the pathogenesis of DN. Specifically, studies describing dysregulated activity of MMPs and/or their tissue inhibitors in various experimental models of diabetes, including animal models of type 1 or type 2 diabetes, clinical investigations of human type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and kidney cell culture studies are reviewed.

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    • "MMP-2 knockout mice show reduced regeneration of axons following spinal contusion injury and impaired functional recovery (Hsu et al., 2006) highlighting the importance of MMPs for successful regeneration. A number of studies have described an increase in systemic MMPs in diabetes (Jacqueminet et al., 2006) and altered expression of MMPs has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of secondary complications including nephropathy (Thrailkill et al., 2009) and poor wound healing (Liu et al., 2009). To date, there is little information about the expression or activity of MMPs and/or their role in the regenerative deficits associated with diabetic neuropathy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Minocycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and has been shown to have analgesic effects. Whilst increased expression of MMPs is associated with neuropathic pain, MMPs also play crucial roles in Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration. In this study we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with either vehicle or minocycline by quantitative PCR and gelatin zymography. We assessed the effects of minocycline on nerve conduction velocity and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) deficits in diabetic neuropathy and investigated the effects of minocycline or MMP-2 on neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dissociated adult rat sensory neurons. We show that MMP-2 is expressed constitutively in the sciatic nerve in vivo and treatment with minocycline or diabetes leads to downregulation of MMP-2 expression and activity. The functional consequence of this is IENF deficits in minocycline-treated nondiabetic rats and an unsupportive microenvironment for regeneration in diabetes. Minocycline reduces levels of MMP-2 mRNA and nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, in vivo minocycline treatment reduces preconditioning-induced in vitro neurite outgrowth following a sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, the addition of active MMP-2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic support and pre-treatment of diabetic sciatic nerve substrata with active MMP-2 promotes a permissive environment for neurite outgrowth. In conclusion we suggest that MMP-2 downregulation may contribute to the regenerative deficits in diabetes. Minocycline treatment also downregulates MMP-2 activity and is associated with inhibitory effects on sensory neurons. Thus, caution should be exhibited with its use as the balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes may be critical in assessing the benefits of using minocycline to treat diabetic neuropathy.
    Experimental Neurology 08/2014; 261. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.08.017 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Experimental studies showed increased expression of MMP-2, but not MMP-9 in glomeruli in hypertensive glomerulosclerosis [1] [7]. In humans the role of MMP-2 was confirmed in pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy [11]. Expression of MMP-9 within glomeruli was found in IgA nephropathy, Schoenlein-Henoch purpura, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The study was undertaken to develop a potential new markers for distinguishing minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in children. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (MMP-9/NGAL) is a better marker of focal sclerosis in the glomerulus then matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 MMP2/TIMP-2. METHODS: The present study used a sample of 36 children and adolescents subdivided into two groups: I – 20 children with MCNS, subjected to examination twice: A – in relapse of nephrotic syndrome, before treatment and B – after regression of proteinuria; II – 16 children with FSGS. MMPs and TIMPs and NGAL levels were measured in the urine using ELISA kit. MMP-9/TIMP-1, MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/NGAL ratios were calculated. RESULTS: Median NGAL/cr. was significantly higher in MCNS and FSGS patients when compared to healthy controls. Both, NGAL and MMP-9 urinary levels were significantly elevated in FSGS subjects, as compared with control subjects. Contrary to FSGS children, in MCNS group, before treatment only NGAL/cr., but not MMP-9/cr. was increased. Urinary concentrations of NGAL and MMP-9 were highly associated with each other (NGAL/cr. vs. MMP-9/cr., r = 0.485, p < 0.01). Median urine MMP-9/NGAL ratio in FSGS patients was significantly higher than in patients with MCNS. We also found that significant increase in MMP-9/NGAL was associated with FSGS [odds ratio (OR) – 9.0; confidence interval (CI) 1.97–41.07]. CONCLUSION: MMP-9/NGAL ratio may serve as differentiation marker between MCNS and FSGS in nephrotic children.
    Disease markers 03/2013; 34(5). DOI:10.3233/DMA-130980 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    • "contribute to nephropathy [17]. Changes in MMP expression and activity in relation to kidney diseases have been discussed and reviewed previously [14] [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Db/db mice are overweight, dyslipidemic and develop diabetic complications, relevant for similar complications in human type 2 diabetes. We have used db/db and db/+ control mice to investigate alterations in proteinase expression and activity in circulation and kidneys by SDS-PAGE zymography, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and in situ zymography. Plasma from db/db mice contained larger amounts of serine proteinases compared to db/+ mice. Kidneys from the db/db mice had a significantly larger glomerular surface area and somewhat thicker glomerular basement membranes compared to the db/+ mice. Furthermore, kidney extracts from db/+ mice contained metalloproteinases with M r of approximately 92000, compatible with MMP-9, not observed in db/db mice. These results indicate that higher levels of serine proteinases in plasma may serve as potential markers for kidney changes in db/db mice, whereas a decrease in MMP-9 in the kidney may be related to the glomerular changes.
    08/2011; 2011(1):832642. DOI:10.5402/2011/832642
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