The challenge of HIV-1 subtype diversity

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 11/2008; 359(18):1965-6. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc086373
Source: PubMed
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 genetic variants circulated in the Asian part of the Russian Federation in 2005-2010 were studied. The samples of HIV-1 (427 in total) were collected in Khabarovsk, Magadan, Kurgan, Krasnoyarsk, Noyabr'sk, Yakutsk, Altay, and Tyva. Sequencing of some genome regions followed by the phylogenetic analysis or specific Internet resource sampling were used as the main methods of the HIV subtyping. The domination of the IDU-A HIV-1 genetic variant typical of HIV-infection epidemic in Russia was shown in all regions tested in 2005-2010. This variant prevailed both in IDUs and heterosexuals. In addition to IDU-A, some other HIV-1 genetic variants were found among them: subtype B and recombinant CRF03_AB. The HIV-1 genetic polymorphism in Russia was found to be low. An increase in the genetic distance among studied de novo samples was noted in the Asian part of Russia in 2005-2010 (26-68%) as compared to the European variants in 1996-1999 (10%).
    Voprosy virusologii 58(4):28-35.
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The high genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) poses a significant challenge to the diagnosis and microbiological characterization of HIV infection. Because of the continual emergence of new variants and the global spread of HIV groups, subtypes and recombinant forms, accurate diagnostic tools are of prime importance. The present review analyzes the problems posed by HIV assays for antibody screening, nucleic acid testing and patient monitoring in HIV-1 non-B subtypes, as well as the utility of some recently introduced genetic algorithms, such as those proposed for the characterization of viral tropism. Overall, the reliability of serological and molecular tests for HIV-1 strains is high, except for the more genetically diverse HIV variants (HIV-1 group O, N, and HIV-2). In contrast, genetic algorithms show acceptable accuracy for HIV-1 subtype B, but are less accurate for non-B subtypes. In conclusion, the ongoing evolution of HIV requires constant monitoring of the performance of screening tests and provides a stimulus to the development of molecular assays to detect all spreading and emerging HIV variants. The availability of both in vitro and clinical data from studies of HIV-1 non-B subtypes will improve the performance of bioinformatics tools.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y MicrobiologĂ­a ClĂ­nica 11/2008; 26S13:66-70. DOI:10.1157/13128783 · 1.88 Impact Factor
Show more