The challenge of HIV-1 subtype diversity.

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 11/2008; 359(18):1965-6. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc086373
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There is continuous need to genetically characterize HIV strains in circulation in order to inform intervention and vaccine discovery. We partially sequenced the envelope C2V3 gene from a total of 59 Kenyan patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and determined HIV subtypes using both the JPHMM subtyping tool and the phylogenetic method. HIV-1 subtype A1 was the predominant strain in circulation, representing 65.5% and 74.5% of all isolates as determined by JPHMM and phylogenetic methods respectively. Subtypes C and D were the next most prevalent pure strains at 9.1% each by both methods. JPHMM identified 9.1% of the isolates as recombinant. Four isolates had short sequences not covering entire C2V3 region and were thus not subtyped. From this study, subtype A viruses are still the predominant HIV-1 strains in local circulation in the Kenya. Constant surveillance is needed to update molecular trends under continuing HAART scale-up.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11/2014; DOI:10.1089/AID.2014.0306 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 subtype C has emerged as the most prevalent strain of HIV-1 worldwide, leading to speculation that subtype C may be more transmissible than other subtypes. We compared the risk of HIV-1 transmission for subtype C versus non-C subtypes (A, D, G and recombinant forms) among heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We conducted a nested case-control analysis using data from two prospective cohort studies of heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from six countries in eastern and southern Africa. Cases (N = 121) included incident HIV-1 transmissions that were established as linked within the serodiscordant partnership by viral sequencing; controls (N = 501) were nontransmitting HIV-1-infected partners. Subtype was determined for partial env and gag genes. Multiple logistic regression controlled for age and gender of the HIV-1-nfected partner and self-reported unprotected sex. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations were compared between subtype C and non-C subtypes using generalized estimating equations. HIV-1 subtype C was not associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission compared with non-C subtypes: env adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.75, P = 0.6] and gag adjOR 0.98 (95% CI 0.63-1.52, P = 0.9). Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels did not differ significantly for subtype C versus non-C. In a geographically diverse population of heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, subtype C was not associated with greater risk of HIV-1 transmission compared with non-C subtypes, arguing against the hypothesis that subtype C is more transmissible compared with other common subtypes.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2014; 28(2):235-43. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000024 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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