Taylor BS, Hammer SM. The challenge of HIV-1 subtype diversity

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 11/2008; 359(18):1965-6. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc086373
Source: PubMed
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    • "Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine [15], and may impact transmission, diagnosis, disease progression, viral burden, response to treatment and emergence of ART resistance [1], [16]. Limited information is available on the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Tanzania and no studies have been conducted in Mwanza region of northern Tanzania. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort). The polymerase encompassing partial reverse transcriptase was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed and subtype determined. Questionnaires documented demographic data. We examined factors associated with subtype using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for study, age, and sex. Among 140 individuals (125 women and 15 men), subtype A1 predominated (54, 39%), followed by C (46, 33%), D (25, 18%) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (15, 11%). There was weak evidence to suggest different subtype frequencies by study (for example, 18% URFs in the Kisesa cohort versus 5-9% in the hospitality facility-worker cohorts; adjusted relative-risk ratio (aRR) = 2.35 [95% CI 0.59,9.32]; global p = 0.09). Compared to men, women were less likely to have subtype D versus A (aRR = 0.12 [95% CI 0.02,0.76]; global p = 0.05). There was a trend to suggest lower relative risk of subtype D compared to A with older age (aRR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23,0.85] per 10 years; global p = 0.05). We observed multiple subtypes, confirming the complex genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in northern Tanzania, and found some differences between cohorts and by age and sex. This has important implications for vaccine design and development, providing opportunity to determine vaccine efficacy in diverse HIV-1 strains.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81848. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081848 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast, the simple rule combining 11/25 and net charge rules accurately predicts HIV-1 tropism for these particular non-B subtypes. The predominant viruses in Uganda and Sudan are subtype D [13]. These subtype D infections are associated with a rapid loss of CD4 cells and disease progression [14-18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 subtype D infections have been associated with rapid disease progression and phenotypic assays have shown that CXCR4-using viruses are very prevalent. Recent studies indicate that the genotypic algorithms used routinely to assess HIV-1 tropism may lack accuracy for non-B subtypes. Little is known about the genotypic determinants of HIV-1 subtype D tropism. We determined the HIV-1 coreceptor usage for 32 patients infected with subtype D by both a recombinant virus phenotypic entry assay and V3-loop sequencing to determine the correlation between them. The sensitivity of the Geno2pheno10 genotypic algorithm was 75% and that of the combined 11/25 and net charge rule was 100% for predicting subtype D CXCR4 usage, but their specificities were poor (54% and 68%). We have identified subtype D determinants in the V3 region associated with CXCR4 use and built a new simple genotypic rule for optimizing the genotypic prediction of HIV-1 subtype D tropism. We validated this algorithm using an independent GenBank data set of 67 subtype D V3 sequences of viruses of known phenotype. The subtype D genotypic algorithm was 68% sensitive and 95% specific for predicting X4 viruses in this data set, approaching the performance of genotypic prediction of HIV-1 subtype B tropism. The genotypic determinants of HIV-1 subtype D coreceptor usage are slightly different from those for subtype B viruses. Genotypic predictions based on a subtype D-specific algorithm appear to be preferable for characterizing coreceptor usage in epidemiological and pathophysiological studies.
    Retrovirology 07/2011; 8(1):56. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-8-56 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be classified to three major groups, M (major), O (outlier) and N (non-M non-O or new). The M group, which has caused the vast majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide, can be further divided into several subtypes, including A–D, F–H, J and K, as well as several circulating and unique recombinant forms (CRFs and URFs) [1], [2]. The greatest genetic diversity of HIV-1 subtypes has been found in China. "
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    ABSTRACT: The B', CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE are the predominant HIV-1 subtypes in China. It is essential to determine their baseline susceptibility to HIV entry inhibitors before these drugs are used in China. The baseline susceptibility of 14 representative HIV-1 isolates (5 CRF07_BC, 4 CRF01_AE, and 5 B'), most of which were R5 viruses, obtained from drug-naïve patients to HIV entry inhibitors, including two fusion inhibitors (enfuvirtide and C34), two CCR5 antagonists (maraviroc and TAK779) and one CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100), were determined by virus inhibition assay. The sequences of their env genes were amplified and analyzed. These isolates possessed similar susceptibility to C34, but they exhibited different sensitivity to enfuvirtide, maraviroc or TAK779. CRF07_BC isolates, which carried polymorphisms of A578T and V583I in the N-terminal heptad repeat and E630Q, E662A, K665S, A667K and S668N in the C-terminal heptad repeat of gp41, were about 5-fold less sensitive than B' and CRF01_AE isolates to enfuvirtide. Subtype B' isolates with a unique polymorphism site of F317W in V3 loop, were about 4- to 5-fold more sensitive than CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE isolates to maraviroc and TAK779. AMD3100 at the concentration as high as 5 µM exhibited no significant inhibitory activity against any of the isolates tested. Our results suggest that there are significant differences in baseline susceptibility to HIV entry inhibitors among the predominant HIV-1 subtypes in China and the differences may partly result from the naturally occurring polymorphisms in these subtypes. This study provides useful information for rational design of optimal therapeutic regimens for HIV-1-infected patients in China.
    PLoS ONE 03/2011; 6(3):e17605. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0017605 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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