Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Effluents, Surface Waters and Sediments

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain.
Talanta (Impact Factor: 3.55). 05/2006; 69(2):334-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2005.09.037
Source: PubMed


Pharmaceutical residues in the environment, and their potential toxic effects, have been recognized as one of the emerging research area in the environmental chemistry. The increasing attention, on pharmaceutical residues as potential pollutants, is due that they often have similar physico-chemical behaviour than other harmful xenobiotics which are persistent or produce adverse effects. In addition, by contrast with regulated pollutants, which often have longer environmental half-lives, its continuous introduction in the environment may make them "pseudopersistents". Pharmaceutical residues and/or their metabolites are usually detected in the environment at trace levels, but, even that, low concentration levels (ng/L or microg/L) can induce to toxic effects. In particular, this is the case of antibiotics and steroids that cause resistance in natural bacterial populations or endocrine disruption effects. In this study, an overview of the environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of pharmaceutical residues is presented from literature data. Risk Quotient method (RQ) was applied as a novel approach to estimate the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals that are most frequently detected in wastewater effluents, surface waters and sediments.

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    • "Pharmaceutical discharges into the aquatic ecosystem are of environmental concern (Brain et al., 2004; Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Halling-Sørensen et al., 1998; Nakada et al., 2006). On one hand, the continuous input of pharmaceutical active compounds into the water matrix from municipal effluents (ME) and waste water treatment plants (WWTP) gives them a state of pseudopersistence (Hernando et al., 2006), and on the other hand, aquatic biota might be unceasingly exposed to these active ingredients. Studies indicating the presence and the effects of pharmaceuticals within the marine environment are occurring with increasing frequency. "
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    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2016; 124:18-31. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.031 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Several publications have indicated the presence of pharmaceuticals within the aquatic environment at the ng L À 1 to mg L À 1 range, due to either direct discharge or even post waste water treatment process (Andreozzi et al., 2002; Gros et al., 2007, 2009, 2010; Quinn et al., 2008a; Zuccato et al., 2004, 2005). In addition, it has been demonstrated that at these concentrations, some pharmaceuticals produce acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms (Fent et al., 2006; Fent, 2008; Ferrari, 2003; Quinn et al., 2009; Hernando et al., 2006; Martín-Díaz el al., 2009; Aguirre- Martínez et al., 2013a, 2013b among others). Nevertheless, for most pharmaceuticals the effect which they have on aquatic biota "
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    ABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TMX) cancer therapeutic drugs have been detected within the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, MTX and TMX research is essentially bio-medically orientated, with few studies addressing the question of its toxicity in fresh water organisms, and none to its’ effect in the marine environment. To the authors’ knowledge, Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) for pharmaceuticals has mainly been designed for freshwater and terrestrial environments (European Medicines Agency-EMEA guideline 2006). Therefore, the purpose of this research was (1) to assess effect of MTX and TMX in marine organism using the EMEA guideline, (2) to develop an ERA methodology for marine environment, and (3) to evaluate the suitability of including a biomarker approach in Phase III. To reach these aims, a risk assessment of MTX and TMX was performed following EMEA guideline, including a 2-tier approach during Phase III, applying lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) as a screening biomarker in tier-1 and a battery of biochemical biomarkers in tier-2. Results from Phase II indicated that MTX was not toxic for bacteria, microalgae and sea urchin at the concentrations tested, thus no further assessment was required, while TMX indicated a possible risk. Therefore, Phase III was performed for only TMX. Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed during 14 days to TMX (0.1, 1, 10, 50 μg L-1). At the end of the experiment, clams exposed to environmental concentration indicated significant changes in LMS compared to the control (p < 0.01); thus a second tier was applied. A significant induction of biomarkers (activity of Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD], glutathione S-transferase [GST], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], and lipid peroxidation [LPO] levels) was observed in digestive gland tissues of clams compared with control (p < 0.01). Finally, this study indicated that MTX was not toxic at an environmental concentration, whilst TMX was potentially toxic for marine biota. This study has shown the necessity to create specific guidelines in order to evaluate effects of pharmaceuticals in marine environment which includes sensitive endpoints. The inadequacy of current EMEA guideline to predict chemotherapy agents toxicity in Phase II was displayed whilst the usefulness of other tests were demonstrated. The 2-tier approach, applied in Phase III, appears to be suitable for an ERA of cancer therapeutic drugs in the marine environment.
    Environmental Research 10/2015; 14:43-59. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.10.028 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "For the study of NSAIDs partition, different aqueous solutions of Tween 80 containing ibuprofen and diclofenac at concentrations of 35 mg/L were introduced in glass ampoules, since it falls in the range usually detected in environmental samples [8] [9]. Choline chloride was added until the desired composition within the biphasic region was reached. "
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of emerging contaminants like pharmaceuticals in the environment is prompting the search of new methods to concentrate and remove them from soils, sediments and effluents. A completely biocompatible aqueous biphasic system composed of Tween 20 or Tween 80 and the ionic liquid choline chloride has been designed for extracting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from aqueous streams. After an initial evaluation of the salting out potential of the selected ionic liquid at different temperatures, the extraction capacity of these systems to be applied for ibuprofen and diclofenac removal from aqueous streams was assessed. Very high levels of contaminant removal (higher than 90%) were reached for all the temperature and feed concentrations used. The suitability of the proposed biocompatible aqueous biphasic systems for the treatment of drugs-polluted effluents from surfactant-based soil washing operations is envisaged.
    Separation and Purification Technology 10/2015; 153:91. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2015.08.039 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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