Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on beta- and alpha-cell function in isolated islet and whole pancreas transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Glucose-dependent insulin secretion is often impaired after islet transplantation where reduced beta-cell secretory capacity indicates a low functional beta-cell mass.
We sought to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhanced glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in islet recipients, and whether GLP-1 effects were dependent on functional beta-cell mass by simultaneously studying recipients of whole pancreas transplants.
The study was performed in a clinical and translational research center.
Five intraportal islet and six portally drained pancreas transplant recipients participated in the study.
Subjects underwent glucose-potentiated arginine testing with GLP-1 (1.5 pmol . kg(-1) . min(-1)) or placebo infused on alternate randomized occasions, with 5 g arginine injected under basal and hyperglycemic clamp conditions.
Basal glucose was lower with increases in insulin and decreases in glucagon during GLP-1 vs. placebo in both groups. During the hyperglycemic clamp, a significantly greater glucose infusion rate was required with GLP-1 vs. placebo in both groups (P < 0.05), an effect more pronounced in the pancreas vs. islet group (P < 0.01). The increased glucose infusion rate was associated with significant increases in second-phase insulin secretion in both groups (P < 0.05) that also tended to be greater in the pancreas vs. islet group (P = 0.08), whereas glucagon was equivalently suppressed by the hyperglycemic clamp during GLP-1 and placebo infusions in both groups. The GLP-1-induced increase in second-phase insulin correlated with the beta-cell secretory capacity (P < 0.001). The proinsulin secretory ratio (PISR) during glucose-potentiated arginine was significantly greater with GLP-1 vs. placebo infusion in both groups (P < 0.05).
GLP-1 induced enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, but not glucagon suppression, in islet and pancreas transplant recipients, an effect dependent on the functional beta-cell mass that may be associated with depletion of mature beta-cell secretory granules.
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ABSTRACT: Human islet transplantation is an effective and promising therapy for type I diabetes. However, long-term insulin independence is both difficult to achieve and inconsistent. De novo or early administration of incretin-based drugs is being explored for improving islet engraftment. In addition to its glucose-dependent insulinotropic effects, incretins also lower postprandial glucose excursion by inhibiting glucagon secretion, delaying gastric emptying, and can protect beta-cell function. Incretin therapy has so far proven clinically safe and tolerable with little hypoglycemic risk. The present review aims to highlight the new frontiers in research involving incretins from both in vitro and in vivo animal studies in the field of islet transplant. It also provides an overview of the current clinical status of incretin usage in islet transplantation in the management of type I diabetes.Current Diabetes Reports 08/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Incretin peptides, principally GLP-1 and GIP, regulate islet hormone secretion, glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, gut motility, appetite and body weight, and immune function, providing a scientific basis for utilizing incretin-based therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Activation of GLP-1 and GIP receptors also leads to nonglycemic effects in multiple tissues, through direct actions on tissues expressing incretin receptors and indirect mechanisms mediated through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Here we contrast the pharmacology and physiology of incretin hormones and review recent advances in mechanisms coupling incretin receptor signaling to pleiotropic metabolic actions in preclinical studies. We discuss whether mechanisms identified in preclinical studies have potential translational relevance for the treatment of human disease and highlight controversies and uncertainties in incretin biology that require resolution in future studies.Cell metabolism 05/2013; · 17.35 Impact Factor
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