Identification of Two SET Domain Proteins Required for Methylation of Lysine Residues in Yeast Ribosomal Protein Rpl42ab
ABSTRACT We show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein Rpl42ab (the identical product of the RPL42A and RPL42B genes) is monomethylated at Lys-40 and Lys-55. The methylation of Lys-40 is dependent upon the Ybr030w gene product; the methylation of Lys-55 is dependent upon the Set7 gene product. Ybr030w and SET7 genes both encode SET domain containing proteins homologous to known protein lysine methyltransferases, suggesting that their products are the specific enzymes responsible for the monomethylation of the two sites in Rpl42ab. We thus designate Ybr030w as Rkm3 and Set7 as Rkm4. Yeast strains with deletions in both the Ybr030w and SET7 genes produce unmethylated Rpl42ab. A slow growth phenotype was seen for the SET7 deletion strain and the double knock-out when grown in low concentrations of the eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. These results suggest that modification of Rpl42ab at Lys-55 can fine-tune its structure to avoid inhibition. An intact mass fragmentation approach ("top down mass spectrometry") was used to quantitate the extent of methylation of Rpl42ab. In wild-type strains, it was found that 78% was monomethylated at both Lys-40 and Lys-55 and that 22% was a mixture of species with either Lys-40 or Lys-55 monomethylated. The top down approach was also used to reevaluate the methylation sites of Rpl12ab. We found that the yeast Rpl12ab protein is dimethylated at the N-terminal proline residue, trimethylated at Lys-3 by Rkm2, and monomethylated at Arg-66.
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ABSTRACT: Here we describe the discovery of S. cerevisiae protein YJR129Cp as a new eukaryotic seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase. An immunoblotting screen of 21 putative methyltransferases showed a loss in the methylation of elongation factor 2 (EF2) on knockout of YJR129C. Mass spectrometric analysis of EF2 tryptic peptides localized this loss of methylation to lysine 509, in peptide LVEGLKR. In vitro methylation, using recombinant methyltransferases and purified EF2, validated YJR129Cp as responsible for methylation of lysine 509 and Efm2p as responsible for methylation at lysine 613. Contextualised on previously described protein structures, both sites of methylation were found at the interaction interface between EF2 and the 40S ribosomal subunit. In line with the recently discovered Efm1 and Efm2 we propose that YJR129C be named elongation factor methyltransferase 3 (Efm3). The human homolog of Efm3 is likely to be the putative methyltransferase FAM86A, according to sequence homology and multiple lines of literature evidence.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; 451(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.07.110 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), originally defined as a coactivator for steroid receptors, is a member of the protein arginine methyltransferases. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of an automethylation event by AgCARM1, a CARM1 homologue in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, using top-down high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, which allows fine mapping of modifications in the intact protein accurately and quantitatively without priori knowledge. Unexpectedly, we found that AgCARM1 has already been predominantly dimethylated during its expression in Escherichia coli. A single arginine methylation site, R485, was identified which is conserved among CARM1 in insects. No methylation was observed in the intact AgCARM1(R485K) mutant where R485 is mutated to lysine, which confirms that R485 is the only detectable methylation site. Using AgCARM1 methyltransferase defective mutants, we confirmed that this is an automethylation event and show the automethylation of AgCARM1 occurs intermolecularly. This study represents the first comprehensive characterization of an automethylation event by top-down mass spectrometry. The unexpected high percentage of automethylated recombinant AgCARM1 expressed in E. coli may shed light on other bacterially expressed post-translational modifying enzymes, which could be modified but overlooked in biochemical and structural studies. Top-down high resolution tandem mass spectrometry thus provides unique opportunities for revealing unexpected protein modification, localizing specific modification to one amino acid, and delineating molecular mechanism of an enzyme.Protein Science 06/2009; 18(6):1272-80. DOI:10.1002/pro.139 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysine methylation has emerged as a major posttranslational modification for histones in eukaryotes. Crosstalk between lysine methylation and other posttranslational modifications is crucial for transcriptional gene regulation and epigenetic inheritance. In addition to histones, several other cellular proteins including transcription factors, tumor suppressor and membrane-associated receptors are subject to lysine methylation. SET7/9 plays a prominent role in lysine methylation of histone and non-histone proteins. Recent reports have suggested a new mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation via SET7/9 modulated DNMT1 methylation. In this mechanism, SET7/9 may methylate DNMT1 leading to proteasome mediated protein degradation, and antagonist lysine specific demethylase (LSD), may prevent this degradation by removing the methyl mark. Thus a fine-tuning and balance between cellular SET7/9 and LSD interaction with DNMT1 may be means for epigenetic gene regulation.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 09/2009; 4(6):383-7. DOI:10.4161/epi.4.6.9450 · 5.11 Impact Factor