[Knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking among hospitality patronage in five cities in China].
ABSTRACT To understand the knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking (SHS) among restaurant or bar patronage in five cities in China.
405 restaurants and bars were conveniently selected in 5 cities as Beijing, Wuhan, Xi'an, Kunming and Guiyang. From each of these hospitality venues, at least 3 patrons, including one smoker, one female non-smoker and one male nonsmoker were asked to answer a questionnaire on their knowledge and attitudes towards SHS and smoking policies in public places.
43.1% of the respondents had good knowledge on SHS hazards. 65% reported that those who smoked around them had never asked for their permission, and about 60% admitted that they had never asked others to stop smoking in front of them. There were almost two thirds of patrons reporting that they once felt discomfort of SHS in restaurants or bars, nearly half of whom chose to leave the venue to avoid exposure to SHS. Though majority of patrons supported '100% smoke-free hospitals, schools and public vehicles' initiations, the proportions of patrons that supporting '100% smoke-free restaurants and bars' initiations were only 30.0% and 19.8%, respectively. In Beijing, logistic regression model analyses showed that those who supporting 100% smoke-free restaurants and bars tended to be non-smokers, aged 25 years or older and to have had at least college education. Also in Beijing, those being female, having at least college education or non-smokers were more likely to choose restaurants and bars with smoking restrictions.
Though knowledge on SHS hospitality patronage was still not high or popular for the public to refuse SHS exposure, banning smoking in hospitality venues was public's inclination and would become a trend in public health endeavor.
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ABSTRACT: To assess indoor second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) (fine particles 2.5 μm in diameter and smaller) level measurements in five cities in China. The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. Portable aerosol monitors were used to measure PM(2.5) concentrations in 404 restaurants and bars. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled. Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, 9 had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) were observed to have allowed smoking during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed was 208 μg/m(3) and 99 μg/m(3) in venues without observed smoking. When outdoor PM(2.5) levels were adjusted, indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed were consistently significantly higher than in venues without smoking observed (F=80.49, p<0.001). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were positively correlated with outdoor PM(2.5) levels (partial rho=0.37 p<0.001) and active smoker density (partial rho=0.34, p<0.001). Consistent with findings in other countries, PM(2.5) levels in smoking places are significantly higher than those in smoke-free places and are strongly related to the number and density of active smokers. These findings document the high levels of SHS in hospitality venues in China and point to the urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free laws in China to protect the public from SHS hazards, as called for in Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was ratified by China in 2005.Tobacco control 12/2009; 19 Suppl 2(Supplement 2):i24-9. DOI:10.1136/tc.2009.029959 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 05/2011; 8(5):1520-33. DOI:10.3390/ijerph8051520 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12/2011; 8(3). DOI:10.3390/ijerph8030842 · 1.99 Impact Factor