Carotenoids, Retinol, and Intestinal Barrier Function in Children From Northeastern Brazil

Clinical Research Unit and Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 11/2008; 47(5):652-9. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31816bf4bf
Source: PubMed


To investigate the association of carotenoids and retinol (vitamin A) with intestinal barrier function in children in an urban community in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil.
Descriptive analysis of serum carotenoids and retinol concentrations with intestinal barrier function in 102 children from an urban community, July 2000 to August 2001.
The weight for height z score (wasting) showed that 19.6% (20/102) had mild malnutrition (-1 to -2 z score). All of the children's serum retinol concentrations were determined and none were severely deficient (< or =0.35 micromol/L), 2.9% (3/102) were moderately (0.36-0.70 micromol/L) deficient, 20.6% (21/102) were mildly (0.71-1.05 micromol/L) deficient; 76.5% (78/102) were vitamin A sufficient (>1.05 micromol/L). The lactulose:mannitol (L/M) ratio was elevated (> or =0.0864) in 49% (47/97) of children when compared with healthy children with normal L/M ratio (<0.0864) in the same geographic area. Serum carotenoids, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene showed significant inverse correlations with the L/M ratio, but not lutein after adjusting for age. Acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein and alpha-acid glycoprotein) were significantly inversely correlated with retinol but not with carotenoids. Retinol and retinol-binding protein were not significantly associated with L/M ratio.
These data suggest a disruption of intestinal barrier function in the paracellular pathway with low serum concentrations of carotenoids. Carotenoids may provide a better marker for disrupted intestinal barrier function than retinol-binding protein or retinol.

Download full-text


Available from: Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Oct 10, 2015
17 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Les Rétinal déshydrogénases (RALDHs) catalysent irréversiblement la déshydrogénation du Rétinal en Acide Rétinoïque (AR) qui est impliqué dans l’embryogenèse et la différenciation tissulaire. Pour comprendre le rôle dans la biosynthèse de l’AR des RALDHs type 3 et 4 de souris, nous avons déterminé leurs propriétés cinétiques ainsi que leur comportement en présence de différents inhibiteurs. Les tests enzymatiques sont effectués avec une préparation d’enzyme recombinante, tagguée avec 6 histidines, purifiée sur colonne Ni-NTA (Qiagen). L’activité enzymatique est évaluée en quantifiant la production d’AR par chromatographie liquide à haute performance (HPLC) en phase inversée. Les constantes cinétiques ont été déterminées pour les isomères du rétinal tout-trans, 9-cis et 13-cis. La RALDH4 catalyse les isomères 9-cis et 13-cis de rétinal, elle présente un faible KM (3μM) pour les deux isomères et a une efficacité catalytique élevée pour le 9-cis rétinal 3.4 fois supérieure au 13-cis rétinal. La RALDH3 est spécifique au tout-trans rétinal avec un KM de 4 μM et une efficacité élevée. β-Ionone, inhibiteur possible pour la RALDH4, inhibe l’activité avec le rétinal 9-cis et 13-cis, mais n’influence pas l’activité de la RALDH3. Le para-hydroxymercuribenzoïque (p-HMB) inhibe l’activité de deux isoenzymes. Le cation MgCl2 augmente par 3 fois l’oxydation du rétinal 13-cis par la RALDH4, diminue l’oxydation du 9-cis rétinal et influence faiblement la RALDH3. Ces données enrichissent les connaissances sur les caractéristiques cinétiques des RALDHs recombinantes de souris de types 3 et 4 et fournissent des éclaircissements sur la biogenèse de l’acide rétinoïque in vivo. SUMMARY Retinal dehydrogenases (RALDHs) catalyze the dehydrogenation of retinal into retinoic acids (RA) that are required for embryogenesis and tissue differentiation. This study sought to determine the detailed kinetic properties of 2 mouse RALDHs, namely RALDH3 and 4, for retinal isomer substrates, to better define their specificities in RA isomer synthesis. RALDH3 and 4 were expressed as His-tagged proteins and affinity-purified. RALDH3 oxidized all-trans retinal with high catalytic efficiency but did not show activity for either 9-cis or 13-cis retinal substrates. RALDH4 was inactive for all-trans retinal substrate, exhibited high activity for 9-cis retinal oxidation, and oxidized 13-cis retinal with lower catalytic efficiency. β-ionone, a potent inhibitor of RALDH4 activity, suppressed 9-cis and 13-cis retinal oxidation competitively, but had no effect on RALDH3 activity. The p-HMB inhibited the activity for both RALDH3 and RALDH4. The divalent cation MgCl2 activated 13-cis retinal oxidation by RALDH4 by 3-fold, slightly decreased 9-cis retinal oxidation, and did not significantly influence RALDH3 activity. These data extend the kinetic characterization of RALDH3 and 4, providing their specificities for retinal isomer substrates, which should help in determining their functions in the synthesis of RAs in specific tissues.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a major contributor to mortality and is increasingly recognized as a cause of potentially lifelong functional disability. Yet, a rate-limiting step in achieving normal nutrition may be impaired absorptive function due to multiple repeated enteric infections. This is especially problematic in children whose diets are marginal. In malnourished individuals, the infections are even more devastating. This review documents the evidence that intestinal infections lead to malnutrition and that malnutrition worsens intestinal infections. The clinical data presented here derive largely from long-term cohort studies that are supported by controlled animal studies. Also reviewed are the mechanisms by which enteric infections lead to undernutrition and by which malnutrition worsens enteric infections, with implications for potential novel interventions. Further intervention studies are needed to document the relevance of these mechanisms and, most importantly, to interrupt the vicious diarrhea-malnutrition cycle so children may develop their full potential.
    Nutrition Reviews 10/2008; 66(9):487-505. DOI:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00082.x · 6.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effects of retinol on intestinal barrier function, growth, total parasites, and Giardia spp infections in children in northeastern Brazil. The study was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (; register no. #NCT00133406) involving 79 children who received vitamin A 100,000-200,000 IU (n = 39) or placebo (n = 40) at enrollment, 4, and 8 months and were followed for 36 months. Intestinal barrier function was evaluated using the lactulose:mannitol ratio test. Stool lactoferrin was used as a marker for intestinal inflammation. The groups were similar with regard to age, sex, nutritional parameters (z scores), serum retinol concentrations, proportion of lactoferrin-positive stool samples, and intestinal barrier function. The lactulose:mannitol ratio did not change during the same time of follow-up (P > 0.05). The proportion of lactoferrin-positive samples evaluated at 1 month did not change between groups (P > 0.05). Total intestinal parasitic, specifically new, infections were significantly lower in the vitamin A treatment compared with control group; these were accounted for entirely by significantly fewer new Giardia infections in the vitamin A treatment group. The cumulative z scores for weight-for-length or height, length or height-for-age z scores, and weight-for-age did not change significantly with vitamin A intervention for 36 months of follow-up. These data showed that total parasitic infection and Giardia spp infections were significantly lower in the vitamin A treatment group when compared with the placebo group, suggesting that vitamin A improves the host's defenses against Giardia infections.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 03/2010; 50(3):309-15. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181a96489 · 2.63 Impact Factor
Show more