Differences in the Incidence of Congestive Heart Failure by Ethnicity - The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 11/2008; 168(19):2138-45. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.19.2138
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The relationship between incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and ethnicity as well as racial/ethnic differences in the mechanisms leading to CHF have not been demonstrated in a multiracial, population-based study. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between race/ethnicity and incident CHF.
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a cohort study of 6814 participants of 4 ethnicities: white (38.5%), African American (27.8%), Hispanic (21.9%), and Chinese American (11.8%). Participants with a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline were excluded. Cox proportional hazards models were used for data analysis.
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 79 participants developed CHF (incidence rate: 3.1 per 1000 person-years). African Americans had the highest incidence rate of CHF, followed by Hispanic, white, and Chinese American participants (incidence rates: 4.6, 3.5, 2.4, and 1.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Although risk of developing CHF was higher among African American compared with white participants (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.1), adding hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus to models including ethnicity eliminated statistical ethnic differences in incident CHF. Moreover, African Americans had the highest proportion of incident CHF not preceded by clinical myocardial infarction (75%) compared with other ethnic groups (P = .06).
The higher risk of incident CHF among African Americans was related to differences in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus as well as socioeconomic status. The mechanisms of CHF also differed by ethnicity; interim myocardial infarction had the least influence among African Americans, and left ventricular mass increase had the greatest effect among Hispanic and white participants.

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated race-ethnic and sex-specific relationships of left ventricular (LV) structure and LV function in African American and white men and women at 43 to 55 years of age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study enrolled African American and white adults, age 18 to 30 years, from 4 US field centers in 1985-1986 (Year-0) who have been followed prospectively. We included participants with echocardiographic assessment at the Year-25 examination (n=3320; 44% men, 46% African American). The end points of LV structure and function were assessed using conventional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography. In the multivariable models, we used, in addition to race-ethnic and gender terms, demographic (age, physical activity, and educational level) and cardiovascular risk variables (body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, presence of diabetes, use of antihypertensive medications, number of cigarettes/day) at Year-0 and -25 examinations as independent predictors of echocardiographic outcomes at the Year-25 examination (LV end-diastolic volume [LVEDV]/height, LV end-systolic volume [LVESV]/height, LV mass [LVM]/height, and LVM/LVEDV ratio for LV structural indices; LV ejection fraction [LVEF], Ell, and Ecc for systolic indices; and early diastolic and atrial ratio, mitral annulus early peak velocity, ratio of mitral early peak velocity/mitral annulus early peak velocity; ratio, left atrial volume/height, longitudinal peak early diastolic strain rate, and circumferential peak early diastolic strain rate for diastolic indices). Compared with women, African American and white men had greater LV volume and LV mass (P<0.05). For LV systolic function, African American men had the lowest LVEF as well as longitudinal (Ell) and circumferential (Ecc) strain indices among the 4 sex/race-ethnic groups (P<0.05). For LV diastolic function, African American men and women had larger left atrial volumes; African American men had the lowest values of Ell and Ecc for diastolic strain rate (P<0.05). These race/sex differences in LV structure and LV function persisted after adjustment. African American men have greater LV size and lower LV systolic and diastolic function compared to African American women and to white men and women. The reasons for these racial-ethnic differences are partially but not completely explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
  • Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 01/2014; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s12170-014-0426-1
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate if heart failure patients in Hawai'i are receiving recommended standard therapy of a select beta-blocker in combination with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and to determine if a gap in quality of care exists between the different regions within the state. A retrospective claims-based analysis of all adult patients (age > 18 years of age) with CHF who were enrolled in a large health plan in Hawai'i was performed (n = 24,149). Data collected included the presence of pharmaceutical claims for ACEI, ARBs and select β-blockers, region of residence, gender, and age. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether there were regional differences in Hawai'i related to medication usage, after adjustment for age and gender. Results showed that only 28.4 % of patients were placed on the recommended therapy of an ACEI or ARB and a select β-blocker with significant differences being found between different regions. Further research is needed to better understand factors affecting regional differences in prescribing patterns.


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