Differences in the Incidence of Congestive Heart Failure by Ethnicity. The Multi-Ehnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 11/2008; 168(19):2138-45. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.19.2138
Source: PubMed


The relationship between incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and ethnicity as well as racial/ethnic differences in the mechanisms leading to CHF have not been demonstrated in a multiracial, population-based study. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between race/ethnicity and incident CHF.
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a cohort study of 6814 participants of 4 ethnicities: white (38.5%), African American (27.8%), Hispanic (21.9%), and Chinese American (11.8%). Participants with a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline were excluded. Cox proportional hazards models were used for data analysis.
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 79 participants developed CHF (incidence rate: 3.1 per 1000 person-years). African Americans had the highest incidence rate of CHF, followed by Hispanic, white, and Chinese American participants (incidence rates: 4.6, 3.5, 2.4, and 1.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Although risk of developing CHF was higher among African American compared with white participants (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.1), adding hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus to models including ethnicity eliminated statistical ethnic differences in incident CHF. Moreover, African Americans had the highest proportion of incident CHF not preceded by clinical myocardial infarction (75%) compared with other ethnic groups (P = .06).
The higher risk of incident CHF among African Americans was related to differences in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus as well as socioeconomic status. The mechanisms of CHF also differed by ethnicity; interim myocardial infarction had the least influence among African Americans, and left ventricular mass increase had the greatest effect among Hispanic and white participants.

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    • "Overall, one in nine deaths is attributed to HF (Mozaffarian et al., 2014). Ethnic minority patients have a 2.5 times greater risk of HF-related mortality, which is especially pronounced for Black males (81.9 national death rate per 100,000 people, compared to 62.1 for White males, and 58.7 for Black females compared to 43.2 for White females; Bahrami et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem, and outcomes remain poor, especially among ethnic minority populations. Medication adherence can improve heart failure outcomes but is notoriously low. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort comparison study of adults with heart failure was to explore differences in predictors of medication nonadherence by racial group (Black vs. White) in 212 adults with heart failure. Adaptive modeling analytic methods were used to model HF patient medication nonadherence separately for Black (31.7%) and White (68.3%) participants in order to investigate differences between these two racial groups. Of the 63 Black participants, 33.3% had low medication adherence, compared to 27.5% of the 149 White participants. Among Blacks, 16 risk factors were related to adherence in bivariate analyses; four of these (more comorbidities, lower serum sodium, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of fewer activities compensating for forgetfulness) jointly predicted nonadherence. In the multiple risk factor model, the number of risk factors in Black patients ranged from 0 to 4, and 76.2% had at least one risk factor. The estimated odds ratio for medication nonadherence was increased 9.34 times with each additional risk factor. Among White participants, five risk factors were related to adherence in bivariate analyses; one of these (older age) explained the individual effects of the other four. Because Blacks with HF have different and more risk factors than Whites for low medication adherence, interventions are needed that address unique risk factors among Black patients with HF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Research in Nursing & Health 05/2015; 38(4). DOI:10.1002/nur.21663 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    • "HF incidence increases with age, rising from 20 per 1,000 individuals 65–69 years of age to >80 per 1,000 individuals among those ≥85 years of age.2 Ethnic disparities in HF prevalence have been identified; the incidence of HF is greatest among African-Americans, intermediate among whites and Hispanics, and lowest among Chinese Americans. These differences are in large part determined by the higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among African-Americans.3 "
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality in Western countries, and β-blockers are a cornerstone of its treatment. However, the response to these drugs is variable among individuals, which might be explained, at least in part, by genetic differences. Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic contributions to drug response variability in order to provide evidence for a tailored therapy in an individual patient. Several studies have investigated the pharmacogenomics of the adrenergic receptor system and its role in the context of the use of β-blockers in treating heart failure. In this review, we will focus on the most significant polymorphisms described in the literature involving adrenergic receptors and adrenergic receptor-related proteins, as well as genetic variations influencing β-blocker metabolism.
    Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 09/2014; 7:267-273. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S49799
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    • "African Americans are at a significantly higher risk of suffering from heart failure compared with other ethnic groups.23 Among CHF patients, African Americans were least affected by interim MI, while Hispanic and white participants were most affected by left ventricular mass increase.23 "
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    ABSTRACT: This is a comprehensive narrative review of the literature on the current science and evidence of population-level differences in risk factors for heart disease among different racial and ethnic population in the US. It begins by discussing the importance of population-level risk assessment of heart disease in light of the growth rate of specific minority populations in the US. It describes the population-level dynamics for racial and ethnic minorities: a higher overall prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease that are unrecognized and therefore not treated, which increases their likelihood of experiencing adverse outcomes and, therefore, potentially higher morbidity and mortality. It discusses the rate of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in minority communities. Minority patients with ACS are at greater risk of myocardial infarction, rehospitalization, and death from ACS. They also are less likely than nonminority patients to receive potentially beneficial treatments such as angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. This paper looks at the data surrounding the increased rate of congestive heart failure in racial and ethnic minorities, where the risk is related to the prevalence of comorbidities with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, which, in combination with environmental factors, may largely explain congestive heart failure disparity. The conclusion is it is essential that health care providers understand these various communities, including nuances in disease presentation, risk factors, and treatment among different racial and ethnic groups. Awareness of these communities' attributes as well as differences in incidence, risk factor burdens, prognosis, and treatment are necessary to mitigate racial and ethnic disparities in heart disease.
    International Journal of General Medicine 08/2014; 7:393-400. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S65528
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