Development of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108;1896-1901

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, US Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive, Suite 1034, Alexandria, VA 22302, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 12/2008; 108(11):1896-901. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.08.016
Source: PubMed


The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a measure of diet quality as specified by Federal dietary guidance, and publication of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 necessitated its revision. An interagency working group based the HEI-2005 on the food patterns found in My-Pyramid. Diets that meet the least restrictive of the food-group recommendations, expressed on a per 1,000 calorie basis, receive maximum scores for the nine adequacy components of the index: total fruit (5 points), whole fruit (5 points), total vegetables (5 points), dark green and orange vegetables and legumes (5 points), total grains (5 points), whole grains (5 points), milk (10 points), meat and beans (10 points), and oils (10 points). Lesser amounts are pro-rated linearly. Population probability densities were examined when setting the standards for minimum and maximum scores for the three moderation components: saturated fat (10 points), sodium (10 points), and calories from solid fats, alcoholic beverages (ie, beer, wine, and distilled spirits), and added sugars (20 points). Calories from solid fats, alcoholic beverages, and added sugars is a proxy for the discretionary calorie allowance. The 2005 Dietary Guideline for saturated fat and the Adequate Intake and Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium, expressed per 1,000 calories, were used when setting the standards for those components. Intakes between the maximum and minimum standards are pro-rated. The HEI-2005 is a measure of diet quality as described by the key diet-related recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines. It has a variety of potential uses, including monitoring the diet quality of the US population and subpopulations, evaluation of interventions, and research.

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Available from: Patricia M. Guenther, Apr 14, 2015
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    • "quality are examined. BDietary quality^ has been described as having at least two basic components: adequacy of healthpromoting foods, food groups and nutrients; and moderation of foods, food groups and nutrients linked with poor health outcomes (Guenther et al. 2008). Agricultural GDP growth is associated with faster reductions in undernutrition, and also faster increases in overweight and obesity than nonagricultural GDP growth (Webb and Block 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The food environment in markets constrains and signals consumers what to purchase. It encompasses availability , affordability, convenience, and desirability of various foods. The effect of income on dietary consumption is always modified by the food environment. Many agricultural interventions aim to improve incomes, increase food availability and reduce food prices. Their effects on nutrition could be better understood if food environment measures helped to explain how additional income is likely to be spent, and how food availability and prices change as a result of large-scale interventions. Additionally, measurement of the food environment could elucidate food access gaps and inform the design of nutrition-sensitive interventions. This paper reviews existing measures of the food environment, and then draws from these tools to suggest ways the food environment could be measured in future studies and monitoring.
    Food Security 05/2015; 7(3):505-520. DOI:10.1007/s12571-015-0455-8 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    • "DGA-2005, an updated version of DGA, was published with new concepts of diet in 2005 [12],emphasizing on important aspects of diet quality such as whole grain, various types of vegetables and specific types of fat, and introducing the new concept of " discretionary calories " . The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), developed by revision of the original HEI, measures diet quality based on the key dietary recommendations of the DGA-2005 [13]. One study has shown a reverse relationship between MetS prevalence and HEI scores in US adolescents [14]; it has also been reported that higher HEI score was associated with decrease in number of MetS risk factors presented in children and adolescents in Crete [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major epidemiologic public health problems is worldwide metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since the relationship between diet quality and MetS among adolescents in developing countries has not been well understood, the present study aimed to evaluate the association between diet quality, as measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) and the prevalence of MetS and its risk factors in a group of Tehranian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 706 adolescents, aged 10-19 years, within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in 2008-2011. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by valid and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and diet quality score was obtained based on HEI-2005. MetS was determined using the modified de Ferranti definition. There were 706 adolescents, aged 14.8±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of MetS in adolescents was 22.4%. Large waist circumference was the most common component of MetS in both girls and boys. After adjusting for age, sex, energy intake and physical activity, participants who were in the highest quartile of HEI-2005 compared with lowest quartile had lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 0.62; CI 95%: 0.40-0.96 and P for trend= 0.02), and low serum HDL-C (OR: 0.62; CI 95%: 0.41-0.97 and P for trend= 0.02). No significant difference was observed in odds of MetS, large waist circumference, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Adolescents with dietary pattern more consistent with the HEI-2005, had lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low serum HDL-C.
    Food & Nutrition Research 05/2014; 2(2):155-161. DOI:10.12691/jfnr-2-4-4 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) [50,51]. Food group standards and the development and evaluation of the HEI-2005 have been previously described [52,53]. The SAS code used to calculate HEI-2005 scores was downloaded from the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion website [54]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks.
    BMC Public Health 04/2014; 14(1):388. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-388 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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