Involvement of ferritin heavy chain in the preventive effect of metformin against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
ABSTRACT Doxorubicin is a wide-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, although a cumulative dose may cause cardiac damage and lead to heart failure. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is dependent on the intracellular iron pool and manifests itself by increasing oxidative stress. Our group has recently shown the ability of metformin, an oral antidiabetic with cardiovascular benefits, to protect cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced damage. This work aimed to study whether metformin is able to modulate the expression of ferritin, the major intracellular iron storage protein, in cardiomyocytes and whether it is involved in their protection. The addition of metformin to adult mouse cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cell line) induced both gene and protein expression of the ferritin heavy chain (FHC) in a time-dependent manner. The silencing of FHC expression with siRNAs inhibited the ability of metformin to protect cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced damage, in terms of the percentage of cell viability, the levels of reactive oxygen species, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). In addition, metformin induced the activation of NF-κB in HL-1 cells, whereas preincubation with SN50, an inhibitor of NF-κB, blocked the upregulation of the FHC and the protective effect mediated by metformin. Taken together, these results provide new knowledge on the protective actions of metformin against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by identifying FHC and NF-κB as the major mediators of this beneficial effect.
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ABSTRACT: A key feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the remodeling of small pulmonary arteries due to abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying how PASMCs in the pathological condition of pulmonary hypertension become resistant to apoptosis remain unknown. It was recently reported that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is up-regulated in a wide array of malignant conditions, which facilitates tumorigenesis partly by inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we observed that the expression levels of Lcn2 were significantly elevated in a rat PH model induced with monocrotaline and in patients with congenital heart disease-associated PH (CHD-PH) when compared with respective control. Therefore, we hypothesize that Lcn2 could regulate human PASMC (HPASMC) apoptosis through a mechanism. By the detection of DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL assay, the detection of Annexin V/PI-positive cells using flow cytometry, and the detection of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 activity, we observed that Lcn2 significantly inhibited HPASMC apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal and H2O2 treatment. We also observed that Lcn2 down-regulated the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreased the levels of cellular ROS, and up-regulated the expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2). In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly inhibits HPASMC apoptosis induced by oxidative stress via decreased intracellular ROS and elevated SODs. Up-regulation of Lcn2 in a rat PH model and CHD-PH patients may be involved in the pathological process of PH.International journal of biological sciences 07/2014; 10(7):798-806. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.9470 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most widely used antitumor drugs, but its cumulative cardiotoxicity have been major concerns in cancer therapeutic practice for decades. Recent studies established that metformin (Met), an oral anti-diabetic drug, provides protective effects in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Met has been shown to increase fatty acid oxidation, an effect mediated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here we delineate the intracellular signaling factors involved in Met mediated protection against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in the H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell line. Treatment with low dose Met (0.1 mM) increased cell viabilities and Ki-67 expressions while decreasing LDH leakages, ROS generations and [Ca2+]i. The protective effect was reversed by a co-treatment with compound-C, an AMPK specific inhibitor, or by an over expression of a dominant-negative AMPKα cDNA. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or a suppression of Src kinase by a small hairpin siRNA also abrogated the protective effect of the low dose Met. Whereas, with a higher dose of Met (1.0 mM), the protective effects were abolished regardless of the enhanced AMPK, PKA/CREB1 and Src kinase activity. In high dose Met treated cells, expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) was significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the protective effect of low dose Met was totally reversed by co-treatment with AG1296, a PDGFR specific antagonist. These data provide in vitro evidence supporting a signaling cascade by which low dose Met exerts protective effects against Dox via sequential involvement of AMPK, PKA/CREB1, Src and PDGFR. Whereas high dose Met reverses the effect by suppressing PDGFR expression.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104888. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104888 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical use of the antitumor anthracycline Doxorubicin is limited by the risk of severe cardiotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying anthracycline-dependent cardiotoxicity are multiple and remain uncompletely understood, but many observations indicate that interactions with cellular iron metabolism are important. Convincing evidence showing that iron plays a role in Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is provided by the protecting efficacy of iron chelation in patients and experimental models, and studies showing that iron overload exacerbates the cardiotoxic effects of the drug, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be completely characterized. Since anthracyclines generate reactive oxygen species, increased iron-catalyzed formation of free radicals appears an obvious explanation for the aggravating role of iron in Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, but antioxidants did not offer protection in clinical settings. Moreover, how the interaction between reactive oxygen species and iron damages heart cells exposed to Doxorubicin is still unclear. This review discusses the pathogenic role of the disruption of iron homeostasis in Doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity in the context of current and future pharmacologic approaches to cardioprotection.Frontiers in Pharmacology 02/2014; 5:25. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00025