Therapeutic potential of resolvins in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders
ABSTRACT Acute inflammation, the primary response to harmful infection and injury, can be successfully completed through effective resolution and tissue repair. Resolution of inflammation requires the elimination of key inflammatory cells and the downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in the inflamed sites. This coordinated process is actively regulated by biochemical mediators which possess anti-inflammatory and/or pro-resolving effects. Resolvins, endogenous lipid mediators generated from omega-3 fatty acids, have emerged as a novel class of potent molecules that counteract excessive inflammatory responses and stimulate pro-resolving mechanisms; regulating the trafficking of leukocytes and stimulating non-phlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages.The disruption of these anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mechanisms can not only cause the initiation of unnecessary inflammation, but also lead to the persistence of inflammation which contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Since inflammation can have the beneficial effect on host defense, the timely resolution of inflammation is better to avoid chronic inflammatory situation, rather than merely blocking inflammation at the beginning. In this regards, understanding of the mechanism underlying resolution of inflammation provides a novel therapeutic approach to prevent and treat chronic inflammatory disorders. This review will address therapeutic potential of resolvins for the successful management of inflammatory ailments.
SourceAvailable from: Wadah Jamal Ahmed[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae).Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 03/2014; 4(3). DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60232-X
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ABSTRACT: The lower occurrence of cardiovascular disease and cancer in populations around the Mediterranean basin as detected in the 1950s was correctly attributed to the peculiar dietary habits of those populations. Essentially, until the mid-20th century, typical Mediterranean diets were rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole-wheat bread, nuts, fish, and, as a common culinary trait, the routine use of extra-virgin olive oil. Nowadays, the regular adoption of such dietary patterns is still thought to result in healthful benefits. Such patterns ensure the assumption of molecules with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, among which ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), and phenolic compounds. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the vasculo-protective pathways mediated by ω-3 PUFAs and polyphenols in the context of the modern Mediterranean dietary habits, including the possible cross-talk and synergy between these typical components. This review complements a parallel one focusing on the role of dietary nitrates and alimentary fats.Vascular Pharmacology 10/2014; 63(3). DOI:10.1016/j.vph.2014.07.001 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipoxygenases (LOXs) form a heterogeneous class of lipid peroxidizing enzymes, which have been implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation but also in the pathogenesis of various diseases with major public health relevance. As other fatty acid dioxygenases LOX oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives, which are further transformed to bioactive lipid mediators (eicosanoids and related substances). On the other hand, lipoxygenases are key players in regulation of the cellular redox homeostasis, which is an important element in gene expression regulation. Although the first mammalian lipoxygenases were discovered 40 years ago and although the enzymes have been well characterized with respect to their structural and functional properties the biological roles of the different lipoxygenase isoforms are not completely understood. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on the physiological roles of different mammalian LOX-isoforms and their patho-physiological function in inflammatory, metabolic, hyperproliferative, neurodegenerative and infectious disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance."Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 10/2014; 1851(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.10.002 · 4.50 Impact Factor