Diagnosis and Treatment of Lichen Sclerosus : An Update.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland, .
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 02/2013; 14(1):27-47. DOI: 10.1007/s40257-012-0006-4
Source: PubMed


Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory, mucocutaneous disorder of genital and extragenital skin. LS is a debilitating disease, causing itch, pain, dysuria and restriction of micturition, dyspareunia, and significant sexual dysfunction in women and men. Many findings obtained in recent years point more and more towards an autoimmune-induced disease in genetically predisposed patients and further away from an important impact of hormonal factors. Preceding infections may play a provocative part. The role for Borrelia is still controversial. Trauma and an occlusive moist environment may act as precipitating factors. Potent and ultrapotent topical corticosteroids still head the therapeutic armamentarium. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are discussed as alternatives in the treatment of LS in patients who have failed therapy with ultrapotent corticosteroids, or who have a contraindication for the use of corticosteroids. Topical and systemic retinoids may be useful in selected cases. Phototherapy for extragenital LS and photodynamic therapy for genital LS may be therapeutic options in rare cases refractory to the already mentioned treatment. Surgery is restricted to scarring processes leading to functional impairment. In men, circumcision is effective in the majority of cases, but recurrences are well described. Anogenital LS is associated with an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva or penis. This review updates the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, pathogenesis, and management of LS of the female and male genitals and extragenital LS in adults and children.

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    • "It is more frequent in women than in men. Genital localization can occur at all time from prepubertal age to elderly and is more common at these ages than in middle ages [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget's disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically.
    01/2014; 2014:595286. DOI:10.1155/2014/595286
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the efficacy of clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream in male patients suffering from genital lichen sclerosus (GLS), as well as the efficacy of methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream and tacrolimus 0.1% ointment as maintenance therapy. Methods: The study was conducted retrospectively. At baseline, male patients with GLS (n = 41) were treated with clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream applied twice daily for 8 weeks. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus, Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were recorded at baseline, week 8 and week 20. At week 8, patients responsive to treatment (n = 37) were further treated with methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream twice weekly (n = 17) or tacrolimus 0.1% ointment once daily (n = 20), as maintenance therapy until week 20. Results: VAS, IGA and DLQI median scores were significantly decreased from baseline to week 8 (p < 0.001). At week 20, patients treated with methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream presented no significant difference in median IGA score (p = 0.865), median DLQI score (p = 0.853) or median VAS score (p = 0.474) compared with patients treated with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusions: Clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream is effective as first-line treatment in male GLS. The data suggest that there is no difference between methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream and tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in preventing the relapses.
    Journal of Dermatological Treatment 03/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.3109/09546634.2013.782385 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian female with a 2-year history of diffused granuloma annulare (GA), who presented for the simultaneous occurrence of genital lichen sclerosus (LS) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). In our opinion this combination is not just coincidental but may share similar immunopathological mechanisms.
    05/2013; 2013:289084. DOI:10.1155/2013/289084
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