Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue.
ABSTRACT B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) (1,2). Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity(3-8). Recently, B7-H1 expression by pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues has been identified as a potential prognostic marker(9,10). Additionally, blockade of B7-H1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer has been shown to produce an anti-tumor response(11). These data suggest the importance of B7-H1 as a potential therapeutic target. Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas(12). In order to eventually be able to identify the patients who will benefit from B7-H1 targeting therapies, it is critical to investigate the correlation between expression and localization of B7-H1 and patient response to treatment with B7-H1 blockade antibodies. Examining the expression of B7-H1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues through immunohistochemistry will give a better understanding of how this co-inhibitory signaling molecule contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity in the tumor's microenvironment. The anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) developed by Chen and coworkers has been shown to produce reliable staining results in cryosections of multiple types of human neoplastic tissues(4,8), but staining on paraffin-embedded slides had been a challenge until recently(13-18). We have developed the B7-H1 staining protocol for paraffin-embedded slides of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The B7-H1 staining protocol described here produces consistent membranous and cytoplasmic staining of B7-H1 with little background.
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent chemotherapeutic advances, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a disease with a poor prognosis and few options. In other difficult to treat cancers, two immunotherapies have recently been approved. Approvals for ipilimumab (Yervoy®) for metastatic melanoma and sipuleucel-T (Provenge®) for castration-resistant prostate cancer offer new insights in this exciting and evolving field. A diverse number of treatment modalities are currently being explored in order to determine which will show efficacy in PDA. Suppressive tumor microenvironments and negative inhibitory signaling pathways contribute to tumor immune evasion. However, recent advances in understanding the complex interplay of tumor-specific T cells, immune checkpoints, and the identification of new biomarkers offer promise. In this review, we will discuss the most recent immunotherapy failures and successes, as well as future treatment strategies for PDA.Current problems in cancer 09/2013; 37(5):273-279. DOI:10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2013.10.004 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a "nonimmunogenic" neoplasm. Single-agent immunotherapies have failed to demonstrate significant clinical activity in PDAC and other "nonimmunogenic" tumors, in part due to a complex tumor microenvironment (TME) that provides a formidable barrier to immune infiltration and function. We designed a neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical trial comparing an irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic PDAC vaccine (GVAX) given as a single agent or in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide to deplete regulatory T cells (Treg) as a means to study how the TME is altered by immunotherapy. Examination of resected PDACs revealed the formation of vaccine-induced intratumoral tertiary lymphoid aggregates in 33 of 39 patients 2 weeks after vaccine treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed these aggregates to be regulatory structures of adaptive immunity. Microarray analysis of microdissected aggregates identified gene-expression signatures in five signaling pathways involved in regulating immune-cell activation and trafficking that were associated with improved postvaccination responses. A suppressed Treg pathway and an enhanced Th17 pathway within these aggregates were associated with improved survival, enhanced postvaccination mesothelin-specific T-cell responses, and increased intratumoral Teff:Treg ratios. This study provides the first example of immune-based therapy converting a "nonimmunogenic" neoplasm into an "immunogenic" neoplasm by inducing infiltration of T cells and development of tertiary lymphoid structures in the TME. Post-GVAX T-cell infiltration and aggregate formation resulted in the upregulation of immunosuppressive regulatory mechanisms, including the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway, suggesting that patients with vaccine-primed PDAC may be better candidates than vaccine-naive patients for immune checkpoint and other immunomodulatory therapies.(C) 2014 AACR.06/2014; 2(7). DOI:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0027
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ABSTRACT: Chordomas are rare malignant tumors that are postulated to arise from remnants of the notochord. Currently, the interaction between chordomas and the host immune system is poorly understood. The checkpoint protein, PD-1 is expressed by circulating lymphocytes and is a marker of activation and exhaustion. Its ligands, PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273), are expressed on a variety of human cancers; however this pathway has not been previously reported in chordomas. We used flow cytometric and RT-PCR analysis in three established primary and recurrent chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, U-CH2, and JHC7) as well as immunohistochemical analysis of chordoma tissues from 10 patients to identify and localize expression of PD-1 pathway proteins. PD-1 ligands are not constitutively expressed by chordoma cells, but their expression is induced in the setting of pro-inflammatory cytokines in all cell lines examined. In paraffin embedded tissues, we found that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes expressed PD-1 in 3/6 cases. We also found that, although chordoma cells did not express significant levels of PD-L1, PD-L1 expression was observed on tumor-infiltrating macrophages and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Our study suggests that PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 are present in the microenvironment of a subset of chordomas analyzed. Future studies are needed to evaluate the contribution of the PD-1 pathway to the immunosuppressive microenvironment of chordomas.Journal of Neuro-Oncology 10/2014; 121(2). DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1637-5 · 2.79 Impact Factor