Efficacy and Safety of Lersivirine (UK-453,061) Versus Efavirenz in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: Week 48 Primary Analysis Results From an Ongoing, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase IIb Trial.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:: A 96-week clinical study was planned to estimate the antiviral activity and safety of lersivirine in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS:: This ongoing international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, Phase IIb exploratory study evaluates the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of lersivirine or 1 of efavirenz, each combined with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive lersivirine (500 or 750 mg once daily) or efavirenz (600 mg once daily), each administered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (300 mg/200 mg, once daily). The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter (missing/discontinuation = failure) at week 48. RESULTS:: For the 193 patients in the study, baseline mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.7 log10 copies per milliliter, and median CD4 cell count was 312 cells per cubic millimeter. At week 48, the percentage of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter was 78.5% (51/65), 78.5% (51/65), and 85.7% (54/63) in the lersivirine 500 mg, 750 mg, and efavirenz groups, respectively. CD4 cell count changes from baseline were similar across groups. Virologic failure occurred in 7 patients (11%) in each of the lersivirine groups and 3 patients (5%) in the efavirenz group. The pattern of lersivirine resistance was distinct from other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Overall incidences of all-causality treatment-related or grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) or AE-related discontinuations were lower with lersivirine than with efavirenz, and serious AEs occurred at similar rates across treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS:: Both lersivirine doses showed broadly comparable efficacy to efavirenz over 48 weeks in treatment-naive patients, with different AE profiles from efavirenz.
- SourceAvailable from: José-Esteban Peris[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)/HIV infection. Discussion: First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP), delavirdine (DLV) and efavirenz (EFV) are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions: This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research.Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2013; 16(1):1-14. · 4.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the late 1990s, reports of unusual changes in body fat distribution named 'lipodystrophy' (LD) began to appear in HIV patients mitigating the enormous enthusiasm about improvement of survival and quality of life provided by the combinations of antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes, the so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which had just become available at that time. The objective of this paper is to critically review the literature on LD and to discuss the impact of newer ARV agents, namely atazanavir, darunavir and raltegravir, as well as strategies of the late HAART era, including single-tablet regimens and nucleoside-sparing regimens. Studies in which LD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or by abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan only, were included. We were unable to identify studies depicting a negative impact of drugs or ARV regimens on limb fat loss. On the contrary, a few studies identified a negative impact of atazanavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir on trunk fat increase. It should be noted that this anthropometric measure is a poor instrument since it cannot distinguish between subcutaneous and visceral fat. We conclude that presumably the body fat changes currently observed in HIV-infected patients is the net result of competing phenomena: on one side the natural history of lipohypertrophy as a result of HIV and HAART impact, and on the other side the physiological body fat changes observed in the aging population.Drugs 09/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Lersivirine (UK-453,061) is a novel second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It binds reverse transcriptase in a distinct way leading to a unique resistance profile. The development of lersivirine was recently stopped in Phase IIb clinical development. Areas covered: This article describes the background of lersivirine, its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile and its clinical efficacy in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, the authors review its resistance profile in addition to its possible interactions with coadministered drugs and safety and tolerability. The authors' evaluation is based on the articles retrieved from a Medline in addition to abstracts from major HIV conferences and workshops addressing lersivirine. Expert opinion: The authors believe that lersivirine has therapeutic potential for HIV-infected individuals with viral strains resistant against first-line NNRTIs. However, no large, well-powered studies have been conducted so far, which assess noninferiority against established antiretroviral agents. In February 2013, the developing company behind lersivirine halted further development as it was decided that it would not provide an improvement over existing therapies; perhaps this is an opportunity missed.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 10/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor