Phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte injury is triggered by superoxide generation through uncoupled endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and ameliorated by 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyindazole (DY-9836), a novel calmodulin antagonist.
ABSTRACT The pathophysiological relevance of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS)-induced superoxide production in cardiomyocyte injury after prolonged phenylephrine (PE) exposure remains unclear. The aims of this study were to define the mechanism of O2(*) production by uncoupled eNOS and evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel calmodulin antagonist 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyindazole (DY-9836) to rescue hypertrophied cardiomyocytes from PE-induced injury. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, prolonged exposure for 96 h to PE led to translocation from membrane to cytosol of eNOS and breakdown of caveolin-3 and dystrophin. When NO and O2(*) production were monitored in PE-treated cells by 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein and dihydroethidium, respectively, Ca(2+)-induced NO production elevated by 5.7-fold (p < 0.01) after 48-h PE treatment, and the basal NO concentration markedly elevated (16-fold; p < 0.01) after 96-h PE treatment. On the other hand, the O2(*) generation at 96 h was closely associated with an increased uncoupled eNOS level. Coincubation with DY-9836 (3 microM) during the last 48 h inhibited the aberrant O2(*) generation nearly completely and NO production by 72% (p < 0.01) after 96 h of PE treatment and inhibited the breakdown of caveolin-3/dystrophin in cardiomyocytes. PE-induced apoptosis assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining was also attenuated by DY-9836 treatment. These results suggest that O2(*) generation by uncoupled eNOS probably triggers PE-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of abnormal O2(*) and NO generation by DY-9836 treatment represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for PE/hypertrophy-induced cardiomyocyte injury.
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release (RIRR) is a fundamental mechanism by which cardiac mitochondria respond to elevated ROS levels by stimulating endogenous ROS production in a regenerative, autocatalytic process that ultimately results in global oxidative stress (OS), cellular dysfunction and death. Despite elegant studies describing the phenomenon of RIRR under artificial conditions such as photo-induced oxidation of discrete regions within cardiomyocytes, the existence, biophysical properties and functional consequences of RIRR in intact myocardium remain unclear. Here, we used a semi-quantitative approach of optical superoxide (O(2)(-)) mapping using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence to explore RIRR, its arrhythmic consequences and underlying mechanisms in intact myocardium. Initially, perfusion of rat hearts with 200 μM H(2)O(2) for 40 min (n = 4) elicited two distinct O(2)(-) peaks that were readily distinguished by their timing and amplitude. The first peak (P1), which was generated rapidly (within 5-8 min of H(2)O(2) perfusion) was associated with a relatively limited (10 ± 2%) rise in normalized O(2)(-) levels relative to baseline. In contrast, the second peak (P2) occurred 19-26 min following onset of H(2)O(2) perfusion and was associated with a significantly greater amplitude compared to P1. Spatio-temporal ROS mapping during P2 revealed active O(2)(-) propagation across the myocardium at a velocity of ~20 μm s(-1). Exposure of hearts (n = 18) to a short (10 min) episode of H(2)O(2) perfusion revealed consistent generation of P2 by high (≥200 μM, 8/8) but not lower (≤100 μM, 3/8) H(2)O(2) concentrations (P < 0.03). In these hearts, onset of P2 occurred following, not during, the 10 min OS protocol, consistent with RIRR. Importantly, P2 (+) hearts exhibited a markedly greater (by 3.8-fold, P < 0.001) arrhythmia score compared to P2 (-) hearts. To explore the mechanism underlying RIRR in intact myocardium, hearts were perfused with either cyclosporin A (CsA) or 4-chlorodiazepam (4-Cl-DZP) to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) or the inner membrane anion channel (IMAC), respectively. Surprisingly, perfusion with CsA failed to suppress (P = 0.75, n.s.) or even delay H(2)O(2)-induced P2 or the incidence of arrhythmias compared to untreated hearts. In sharp contrast, perfusion with 4-Cl-DZP markedly blunted O(2)(-) levels during P2, and suppressed the incidence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Finally, perfusion of hearts with the synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134 completely abolished the H(2)O(2)-mediated RIRR response as well as the incidence of arrhythmias. These findings extend the concept of RIRR to the level of the intact heart, establish regenerative O(2)(-) production as the mediator of RIRR-related arrhythmias and reveal their strong dependence on IMAC and not the mPTP in this acute model of OS.The Journal of Physiology 08/2011; 589(Pt 21):5167-79. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine (PE) is accompanied by suppression of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity, and copper (Cu) supplementation restores CCO activity and reverses the hypertrophy. The present study was aimed to understand the mechanism of PE-induced decrease in CCO activity. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with PE at a final concentration of l00 µM in cultures for 72 h to induce cell hypertrophy. The CCO activity was determined by enzymatic assay and changes in CCO subunit COX-IV as well as copper chaperones for CCO (COX17, SCO2, and COX11) were determined by Western blotting. PE treatment increased both intracellular and extracellular homocysteine concentrations and decreased intracellular Cu concentrations. Studies in vitro found that homocysteine and Cu form complexes. Inhibition of the intracellular homocysteine synthesis in the PE-treated cardiomyocytes prevented the increase in the extracellular homocysteine concentration, retained the intracellular Cu concentration, and preserved the CCO activity. PE treatment decreased protein concentrations of the COX-IV, and the Cu chaperones COX17, COX11, and SCO2. These PE effects were prevented by either inhibition of the intracellular homocysteine synthesis or Cu supplementation. Therefore, PE-induced elevation of homocysteine restricts Cu availability through its interaction with Cu and suppression of Cu chaperones, leading to the decrease in CCO enzyme activity.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e67549. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in Phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the Nox isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48hours as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4hours after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4hours of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48hours of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.Cellular signalling 04/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor