Sara A. Quandt is with the Department of Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC. Phillip Summers, Chaya R. Spears, and Thomas A. Arcury are with the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine. Werner E. Bischoff is with the Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Infectious Diseases, Wake Forest School of Medicine. Haiying Chen is with the Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine. Melinda F. Wiggins is with Student Action With Farmworkers, Durham, NC. Sara A. Quandt, Werner E. Bischoff, Haiying Chen, and Thomas A. Arcury are also with the Center for Worker Health, Wake Forest School of Medicine.
We sought to (1) describe observed cooking and eating facilities in migrant farmworker camps, (2) compare observed conditions with existing farmworker housing regulations, and (3) examine associations of violations with camp characteristics.
We collected data in 182 farmworker camps in eastern North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. We compared our observations with 15 kitchen-related housing regulations specified by federal and state housing standards.
We observed violations of 8 regulations in at least 10% of camps: improper refrigerator temperature (65.5%), cockroach infestation (45.9%), contaminated water (34.4%), rodent infestation (28.9%), improper flooring (25.8%), unsanitary conditions (21.2%), improper fire extinguisher (19.9%), and holes or leaks in walls (12.1%). Logistic regression showed that violations were related to the time of the agricultural season, housing type, number of dwellings and residents, and presence of workers with H-2A visas.
Cooking and eating facilities for migrant farmworkers fail to comply with regulations in a substantial number of camps. Greater enforcement of regulations, particularly during occupancy during the agricultural season, is needed to protect farmworkers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: A high quality diet for preschoolers can promote appropriate weight for height, and help children gain familiarity with a variety of foods. Children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers are at particular risk for low dietary quality due to poverty, ineligibility for some safety net benefits, and migratory lifestyle. Few data document dietary quality in this high risk population. Methods: 250 farmworker families in North Carolina with a 2-3 year old child were recruited for a prospective study of child health. This paper focuses on baseline diet. The Revised Diet Quality Index for Children (RC-DQI) was calculated from dietary intake data from 3-24 hr recalls completed by mothers using the NDSR system. The RC-DQI, based on national dietary intake recommendations, provides an overall and 13 component scores. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 31 mothers explored constraints on family and child diet Results: The average overall score was approximately 60 of 90 possible points. Component scores were most favorable for fat-related food components, total grains, and juice consumption. Notable shortfalls were observed for fruit, vegetable, and sugar consumption. Qualitative data revealed constraints on food access. These were due to rural residence (food deserts, transportation), difficulty accessing benefits due to migration and documentation status, and limited ability to cook or store food in migrant camps. Conclusions: These data show that poor dietary quality characterizes preschoolers in this high risk and often hidden population. Policies to improve access to healthy foods need to take into account environmental and policy barriers.
140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Manual labor in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector is provided primarily by immigrant workers. Limited information is available that documents the demographic characteristics of these manual workers, the occupational illnesses, injuries and fatalities they experience; or the risk factors to which they are exposed.
A working conference of experts on occupational health in the AgFF Sector was held to address information limitations. This paper provides an overview of the conference. Other reports address organization of work, health outcomes, healthcare access, and safety policy.
This report addresses how best to define the population and the AgFF Sector, occupational exposures for the sector, data limitations, characteristics of immigrant workers, reasons for concern for immigrant workers in the AgFF Sector, regulations, a conceptual model for occupational health, and directions for research and intervention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine 08/2013; 56(8). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22173 · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify Latina youths' perceptions of local assets and concerns related to children's environmental health (EH) in an agricultural community.
Four photovoice sessions were used to elicit 6 promotores' and 5 middle school students' perspectives on problems and strengths related to "children; environment; and health."
Data collection was diverse and included a demographic and evaluation questionnaire, photographs, audio recordings of group photo-sharing sessions, and field notes.
Participants identified three themes that reflected group discussion during two photo-sharing sessions: a lack of structured youth activities; poverty and stress; and benefits and detriments of agricultural work. Community assets related to creating a healthy environment for youth were identified and included the clinic, churches, and youth programs.
Findings from this study reinforce that social background and position affect how EH issues are defined and may be addressed. Participant perspectives are valuable to nurses because they offer a lens through which to see the complexities of EH from the viewpoint of those most directly affected. Leadership training and opportunities to serve on coalitions and neighborhood councils are recommended approaches to meaningfully involving youth in environmental justice initiatives.
Public Health Nursing 02/2014; 31(6). DOI:10.1111/phn.12112 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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