[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, Cs radioisotopes have been dispersed over a wide area. Most of the Cs has remained on the surface of the soil because Cs(+) is strongly adsorbed in the interlayer spaces of soil clays, particularly vermiculite. We have investigated the microscopic structure of an aqueous suspension of vermiculite clay over a wide length scale (1-1000 Å) by small-angle X-ray scattering. We determined the effect of the adsorption behavior of Cs(+) on the structural changes in the clay. It was found that the abruption of the clay sheets was induced by the localization of Cs(+) at the interlayer. This work provides important information for predicting the environmental fate of radioactive Cs in polluted areas, and for developing methods to extract Cs from the soil and reduce radioactivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 09/2014; 11(9):9286-9305. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110909286 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The triple disaster that struck the Tohoku region on March 11, 2011, has had massive psychiatric, social, and physical effects on the people of Japan. A staggering loss of life and property, as well as an ongoing nuclear disaster, has dramatically affected the ability of the country to recover.
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