Targeting endoplasmic reticulum stress in metabolic disease.

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center , La Jolla, CA 92037 , USA.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (Impact Factor: 4.9). 01/2013; DOI: 10.1517/14728222.2013.756471
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Introduction: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a condition that dramatically affects protein folding homeostasis in cells, has been associated with a number of metabolic diseases. Emerging preclinical and clinical evidence supports the notion that pharmacological modulators of ER stress have therapeutic potential as novel treatments of metabolic disorders. Areas covered: In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases are discussed, highlighting the roles of various UPR components revealed using disease models in mice. Special emphasis is placed on the use of novel small molecules in animal disease models and human pathologies, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. Expert opinion: ER stress is a highly promising therapeutic target for metabolic disease. Small molecular chemical chaperones have already demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in animal and human studies. The emergence of compounds that target specific UPR signaling pathways will provide more options for this purpose. Although the findings are promising, more studies are needed to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of these small molecules for future use in humans.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular proteins that fail to fold properly result in inactive or disfunctional proteins that can have toxic functions. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a two-tiered cellular mechanism initiated by eukaryotic cells that have accumulated misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An adaptive pathway facilitates the clearance of the undesired proteins; however, if overwhelmed, cells trigger apoptosis by upregulating transcription factors such as C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). A high throughput screen was performed directed at identifying compounds that selectively upregulate the apoptotic CHOP pathway while avoiding adaptive signaling cascades, resulting in a sulfonamidebenzamide chemotype that was optimized. These efforts produced a potent and selective CHOP inducer (AC50 = 0.8 μM; XBP1 > 80 μM), which was efficacious in both mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and a human oral squamous cell cancer cell line, and demonstrated antiproliferative effects for multiple cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10/2014; DOI:10.1021/ml5003234 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway which is activated when unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), a condition commonly referred to as ER stress. It has been shown that lipid biosynthesis is increased in ER-stressed cells. The Nε-lysine acetylation of ER-resident proteins, including chaperones and enzymes involved in the post-translational protein modification and folding, occurs upon UPR activation. In both ER proteins acetylation and lipid synthesis, acetyl-CoA is the donor of acetyl group and it is transported from the cytosol into the ER. The cytosolic pool of acetyl-CoA is mainly derived from the activity of mitochondrial citrate carrier (CiC). Here, we have demonstrated that expression of CiC is activated in human HepG2 and rat BRL-3A cells during tunicamycin-induced ER stress. This occurs through the involvement of an ER stress responsive region identified within the human and rat CiC proximal promoter. A functional Unfolded Protein Response Element (UPRE) confers responsiveness to the promoter activation by UPR transducers ATF6α and XBP1. Overall, our data demonstrate that CiC expression is activated during ER stress through the binding of ATF6α and XBP1 to an UPRE element located in the proximal promoter of Cic gene. The role of ER stress-mediated induction of CiC expression has been discussed.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.10.004 · 5.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Whereas the activation of autophagy in cells infected with other flaviviruses is well known, the interaction of WNV with the autophagic pathway still remains unclear and there are reports describing opposite findings obtained even analyzing the same viral strain. To clarify this controversy, we first analyzed the induction of autophagic features in cells infected with a panel of WNV strains. WNV was determined to induce autophagy in a strain dependent manner. We observed that all WNV strains or isolates analyzed, except for the WNV NY99 used, upregulated the autophagic pathway in infected cells. Interestingly, a variant derived from this WNV NY99 isolated from a persistently infected mouse increased LC3 modification and aggregation. Genome sequencing of this variant revealed only two non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions when compared to parental NY99 strain. These nucleotide substitutions introduced one amino acid replacement in NS4A and other in NS4B. Using genetically engineered viruses we showed that introduction of only one of these replacements was sufficient to upregulate the autophagic pathway. Thus, in this work we have shown that naturally occurring point mutations in the viral non-structural proteins NS4A and NS4B confer WNV with the ability to induce the hallmarks of autophagy such as LC3 modification and aggregation. Even more, the differences on the induction of an autophagic response observed among WNV variants in infected cells did not correlate with alterations on the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting an uncoupling of UPR and autophagy during flavivirus infection. The findings here reported could help to improve the knowledge of the cellular processes involved on flavivirus-host cell interactions and contribute to the design of effective strategies to combat these pathogens.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2015; 5:797. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00797 · 3.94 Impact Factor


Available from
May 17, 2014