The interaction between neuropsychological and motor deficits in patients after stroke.

Université Lille Nord de France (D.L.), Lille, France
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 01/2013; 80(3 Suppl 2):S27-34. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182762569
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stroke survivors typically experience varying degrees of motor and neuropsychological deficits. Although these deficits are frequently treated as separate entities in the cognitive and physical rehabilitation settings, there is considerable interaction between them. Cognitive-motor interference, for example, refers to the simultaneous performance of cognitive and motor functions that results in diminished execution of one or both of the tasks. Studies have demonstrated that when performing dual tasks, poststroke patients will typically favor the cognitive function over the motor task. Furthermore, only certain cognitive functions will interfere with motor abilities, while the intensity of the motor task may magnify the detriment in dual-task performance. Moreover, mood disorders, particularly depression, have also been shown to interact substantially with physical functioning. Consequently, poststroke patients with depression experience greater reductions in their activities of daily living and worse rates of recovery. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest an association between white matter hyperintensities and both motor and neuropsychological poststroke deficits. The relationship between spasticity and cognition deficits needs to be further explored with regard to the deleterious consequences of poststroke spasticity on quality of life and overall motor function. These insights, among others, contribute to a growing, if embryonic, body of knowledge about poststroke motor/cognitive interaction that will ultimately inform developments in treatment and rehabilitation.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months) were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5 d/wk for 12 weeks). Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P = 0.001) and greater sensory deficits (P = 0.003). Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P < 0.0001). Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho = 0.49, P = 0.03). Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r = -0.755, P = 0.003), premotor (r = -0.565, P = 0.04), primary sensory (r = -0.614, P = 0.03), and associative sensory (r = -0.597, P = 0.03) regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke.
    01/2014; 2014:306325. DOI:10.1155/2014/306325
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    Neurology 01/2014; 82(9). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000168 · 8.30 Impact Factor


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Jun 1, 2014